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    Volume 47
    Issue 1

Persicaria amphibia, an old traditional remedy and wild edible herb: in vitro evaluation of cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties
Milica Maksimović, Marina Jovanović, Biljana Nikolić, Nina Tomić, Dina Tenji, Tatjana Stević and Dragana Mitić Ćulafić
Pages 1-8
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    ABSTRACT:  Persicaria amphibia (subfam. Polygonoideae), an aquatic macrophyte rich in dietary polyphenolics, is used as a traditional remedy and culinary herb. Nevertheless, P. amphibia from the Balkan region has been insufficiently studied and underutilized. Here, the cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties of the previously chemically characterised ethanol extract of P. amphibia aerial parts were tested. The following methods were carried out: the MTT assay, qRT-PCR, microdilution assay, Chromobacterium violaceum screening assay (monitoring of quorum sensing, QS) and the agar plating method (antifungal activity). The study was conducted to determine the cytotoxic effects of P. amphibia against lung cancer cells (A549) and its combination with cytostatic doxorubicin (Dox). A dose-dependent decrease in cell viability (up to 82% reduction) and additive interactions of the tested agents were noted. Both alone and combined with Dox, P. amphibia reduced the expression of Nrf2 (p < 0.05). In terms of antimicrobial effects, P. amphibia exhibited an antipathogenic effect since it disrupted QS communication, which was evident through the inhibition of violacein production of C. violaceum CV025. The antifungal screening revealed that P. amphibia induced significant growth inhibition of Aspergillus spp. (28.23%). Based on the obtained results, further examination of the potential use of P. amphibia in modern phytotherapy and diet-derived cancer chemoprevention is encouraged.

    KEY WORDS:  Persicaria amphibia, doxorubicin, Nrf2 gene expression, antimicrobial activity, quorum sensing, diet-derived therapy

A contribution to the knowledge of Amanita coryli (Amanitaceae, Agaricales)
Fuat Bozok, Boris Assyov, Mahmut Yarar and Hatıra Taşkın
Pages 19-29
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    ABSTRACT:  The authors present descriptions and illustrations of Amanita coryli, rarely featured in the mycological literature, based on molecularly characterised by nrITS sequences specimens from the Balkan Peninsula (Bulgaria and Turkey). The collections studied here suggest that the species is probably not restricted to the presumed host-trees of the genus Corylus and may also occur with some Fagaceae. Further, the analysis of previously released sequences in public databases show that it is a species with a wide distribution in Eurasia, probably much more common than currently known, but likely confused with other members of the section Vaginatae.

    KEY WORDS:  Amanita Sect. Vaginatae, Amanitopsis, biogeography, mycota of Southeastern Europe, taxonomy

Phytochemical analysis and biological activities of Salvia candidissima subsp. candidissima mericarps
Sevda Güzel Kara, Zehra Öksüz, Şerife Selma Uras Güngör, Samet Belveren and Ahmet Kahraman
Pages 187-195
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    ABSTRACT:  The sterol, amino acid, mineral, total phenolic, and total flavonoid contents, and the antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm activities of Salvia candidissima subsp. candidissima mericarps were investigated. The mericarps were collected in the province of Bayburt, Turkey. Gas chromatography was used for sterol analysis, Prominence ultra-fast liquid chromatography for amino acid analysis, and ICPMS for mineral analysis. Folin-Ciocalteu, Al(NO3)3, and DPPH radical scavenging activity assays were performed on ethanol extracts of the mericarps to evaluate the total phenolic and flavonoid contents, and antioxidant potential, respectively. The ethanol and hexane extracts of the mericarps were tested for their antimicrobial activity against seven bacterial and three fungal strains using the microdilution method and for antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm using the crystal violet staining method. The sterol, amino acid, and mineral contents and antibiofilm activity of the mericarps were studied for the first time. The most abundant components of the mericarps are determined as β-sitosterol (69.8%), glutamic acid (4895 mg/100 g), and potassium (11474 μg/g). The results of total phenolic and flavonoid contents and DPPH free radical scavenging activity were 3.47 μg GAE/mg extract, 0.35 μg QE/mg extract, and 79.79%, respectively. Both of the tested extracts exhibited antimicrobial activity against all the tested microorganisms, however, the efficiency of the extracts was not as strong as the reference drugs ampicillin and fluconazole. While both extracts were effective in preventing biofilm formation, the ethanol extract was found to be more effective than the hexane extract in preformed biofilm inhibition. In conclusion, S. candidissima subsp. candidissima mericarps have good nutritional potential with high amounts of amino acids, sterols (especially β-sitosterol), minerals, and phenolics and flavonoids. Additionally, our findings provide important preliminary data for the literature in terms of the antibiofilm activity of Salvia candidissima subsp. candidissima mericarps.

    KEY WORDS:  Salvia candidissima subsp. candidissima, mericarp, chemical content, DPPH, antimicrobial activity, antibiofilm activity

Chemical analysis and biological activity of the essential oils and extracts of two liverwort species growing in Turkey
Gonca Çelik, Hüseyin Şahin, Nimet Baltaş, Nevzat Batan, Şengül Alpay Karaoğlu and Nurettin Yayli
Pages 31-40
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to investigate the chemical composition of the essential oils (EOs) from two Diplophyllum species and to evaluate their bioactivity potential [antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-urease, anti-xanthine oxidase (XO)], and phenolic compounds. The analysis of Diplophyllum albicans and Diplophyllum taxifolium permitted the identification of 62 components, comprising ≥ 99.6% of the total EO composition. The major components found in these liverwort species were β-patchoulene, β-santalene, β-himachalene, and cubebol. The antimicrobial assays showed that the solvent extracts (n-hexane and methanol) from these liverwort species exhibited weak to moderate antimicrobial activity. In addition, the methanol extracts of these liverwort species also exhibited moderate to high antioxidant potential. The enzyme inhibitory effects of the species were determined using urease and XO for the methanol extracts. Generally, the methanol extracts of D. albicans and D. taxifolium exhibited powerful urease inhibition with IC50 values of 9.711 ± 0.058 and 6.304 ± 0.099 μg/mL, respectively, compared to the IC50 value of 26.124 ± 0.077 μg/mL for the standard (acetohydroxamic acid). Moreover, the HPLC-UV detection method showed that the analysed methanol extracts of these liverwort species contained only catechin and benzoic acid. These findings suggest that the analysed liverwort species possess antioxidant and urease inhibition, thus indicating the potential to explore new bioactive molecules.

    KEY WORDS:  Diplophyllum taxifolium, Diplophyllum albicans, oil composition, GC/FID/ MS, biological evaluation, phenolic constituents, HPLC-UV

Geastrum juliae (Geastrales, Agaricomycetes), a new species from the Russian Far East
Yury A. Rebriev, Eugeniya M. Bulakh, and Alona Yu. Biketova
Pages 41-46
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    ABSTRACT:  A new species, Geastrum juliae, is described from Primorsky Krai in the Russian Far East. Based on the analysis of sequences retrieved from GenBank, this taxon is also found in China. The closest species is G. rubellum based on morphology and phylogenetics. We present the new species with illustrated descriptions and molecular data.

    KEY WORDS:  earthstars, gasteroid fungi, Gasteromycetes, ITS nrDNA, molecular identification, taxonomy

Three Sphagnum taxa new to Turkey and South-West Asia
Öznur Özen-Öztürk, Turan Özdemir, Nevzat Batan and Hüseyin Erata
Pages 47-53
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    ABSTRACT: Sphagnum jensenii, S. fallax var. isoviitae, and S. pylaesii were found as new to Turkey and Southwest Asia following a bryological field trip to the Giresun province of Turkey. Sphagnum fallax var. isoviitae was also new to Asia. Descriptions, illustrations, world distribution, ecology, and comparisons with related species are presented.

    KEY WORDS:  biodiversity, Bryophyte, peat mosses, new record

Pseudoxenochalara gen. nov. (Dermateaceae, Helotiales), with P. grumantiana sp. nov. from the Svalbard archipelago
Vadim Alexandrovich Iliushin and Irina Yuryevna Kirtsideli
Pages 55-63
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    ABSTRACT: The family Dermateaceae belongs to the Helotiales order, the class Leotiomycetes, and consists of 14 genera. In this study, we introduce the new genus Pseudoxenochalara gen. nov. to the Dermateaceae family, which is supported by morphological observations and multilocus phylogenetic analysis. Partial sequences of the loci encoding β-tubulin (BenA), ribosomal polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2), 28S rDNA (LSU) and internal transcribed spacer rDNA region (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2) were analysed. This genus comprises one new species, P. grumantiana, isolated from the soil of the Arctic tundra near the settlement of Barentsburg (the Svalbard archipelago). The asexual morph of P. grumantiana was described. The sequences data, as well as the macroand micromorphological characteristics distinguish P. grumantiana from all known species in the Dermateaceae family.

    KEY WORDS:  Dermateaceae, Helotiales, multi-gene phylogeny, Arctic tundra, Svalbard

New epiphytic bryophyte communities from Turkey
Mevlüt Alataş, Hüseyin Erata, Nevzat Batan and Tülay Ezer
Pages 65-73
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    ABSTRACT: The epiphytic bryophyte vegetation of the Kümbet Plateau (Dereli-Giresun) was investigated. A total of 40 relevés taken from tree trunks in different vegetation periods of the year 2019 were analysed using multivariate analysis methods such as detrended correspondence analysis (DECORANA) and two-way indicator species analysis (TWINSPAN), and the Braun-Blanquet method was also applied. As a result, Frullanio tamarisci-Neckeretum pumilae Alataş, Ezer, Batan & Erata ass. nov. and Frullanio tamarisci-Neckeretum pumilae-isothecietosum alopecuroidis Alataş, Ezer, Batan & Erata subass. nov. were described as new syntaxa from Turkey. In addition, Ulotetum crispae -sanionietosum uncinatae was recorded for the first time from Turkey, while Ulotetum crispae was recorded for the second time from Turkey. These syntaxa were analysed in terms of their ecological and floristic aspects.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophyte, epiphytic vegetation, Kümbet Plateau, Turkey

Assessment of the botanical origin of Bulgarian honey samples using melissopalynological, DNA barcoding and NMR analyses
Ralitsa Balkanska, Katerina Stefanova, Radostina Stoikova-Grigorova, Dessislava Gerginova, Svetlana Simova and Ivan Atanassov
Pages 75-85
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: Polyfloral honey samples from Bulgaria were subject to parallel analyses of their botanical origin and composition using traditional melissopalynology, DNAbarcoding based on the plastid rbcL gene and NMR analysis. The obtained datasets were compared with each other to evaluate the information capacity of the applied experimental methods. The results from the melissopalynological and DNA-barcoding studies demonstrated a significantly higher resolution of the latter, revealing the presence of pollen from a total of 17 plant families, 21 plant genera and 5 plant species in comparison to pollen from only 7 plant families, 3 plant genera and 4 plant species identified by melissopalynology. The higher resolution of DNA barcoding allows a more detailed characterisation of the diet and foraging preferences of honey bees, including foraging on plant species growing in lower abundance in the area. The comparison of the quantitative data on floral honey composition for several plant genera and species reveals significant differences between the relative abundance of the pollen grains estimated by melissopalynological analysis and the relative abundance of rbcL clones in rbcL libraries determined after DNA barcoding. All three applied methods confirm the polyfloral botanical origin of the analysed samples and support routine NMR use for the assessment of the floral origin of honey.

    KEY WORDS:  rbcL, bee honey, melissopalynology, 1H and 13C NMR

The effect of the Satureja montana ethanol extract on the morphological changes of erythrocytes
Marija Marin and Snežana Branković
Pages 259-268
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    ABSTRACT: The present study investigated the antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts of the leaves of Satureja montana and their influence on the membrane stability of erythrocytes ex vivo. The ethanol extracts showed a very potent antioxidant activity of EC50 = 0.055mg/ml. Rat blood samples were treated with 96% ethanol extracts in different concentrations of 100 μg/ml, 200 μg/ml, and 300 μg/ml, and morphological analyses were carried out. The results showed significant differences in the shape of the erythrocytes incubated with higher extract concentrations. Considerable morphological changes were observed at a concentration of 200 μg/ml which was characterised by the highest percentage of stomatocytes, while the highest percentage of echinocyte formation was observed at a concentration of 300 μg/ml. The results of this investigation indicated that the ethanol extracts of S. montana exhibited a possible protective effect on the membrane stability of erythrocytes.

    KEY WORDS:  winter savory, plant extract, antioxidant activity, blood cells

The phenolic constituents and antimicrobial activity of Xanthium spinosum (Asteraceae) extracts
Milica Miletić, Marija Ivanov, Aleksandra Topalović, Milan Gavrilović, Uroš Gašić and Pedja Janaćković
Pages 93-101
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    ABSTRACT: Xanthium spinosum is a cosmopolitan annual herb used in traditional medicine worldwide. Although known from ethnobotanical studies, the species is scarcely investigated from the aspects of phytochemistry and biological activity. Therefore, the phenolic composition and biological activity of X. spinosum were examined. Plant specialised metabolites (phenolics) extracted from the roots, leaves and fruits with dichloromethane:methanol (1:1) were analysed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In total 10 phenolic compounds were identified and quantified. Six compounds were common to all the extracts. Chlorogenic acid was the most abundant constituent in all the extracts (4.262 mg/g in the fruit extract, 0.820 mg/g in the leaf extract, and 0.540 mg/g in the root extract). The biological activity (antimicrobial and antibiofilm) of the extracts was tested against 12 microfungi and 12 bacterial strains by the microdilution method. All the extracts exhibited moderate antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity and inhibited the growth of most of the examined microorganisms. The obtained results indicate the potential role of the tested extracts in pharmacy and medicine.

    KEY WORDS:  phenolic acids, flavonoids, antifungal activity, antibacterial activity, antibiofilm activity

The relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and yield components in sunflower hybrids
Antonela Markulj Kulundžić, Dario Iljkić, Manda Antunović, Aleksandra Sudarić and Ivana Varga
Pages 103-111
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    ABSTRACT: The sunflower is considered one of the four most important oilseeds globally. The study was conducted on 16 sunflower hybrids in field conditions to link photosynthesis parameters with yield components using chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters (ChlF), chlorophyll content, leaf temperature and agronomic traits. By analysing the ChlF parameters in the flowering stage of sunflower hybrids, a statistically significant difference was found between the studied hybrids for all the ChlF parameters except for the photosynthetic efficiency index of energy required from exciton to the reduction of ultimate electron acceptors on photosystem I (PItotal). At the same time, the results confirmed the significance of the chlorophyll content, leaf temperature, and agronomic traits for the studied hybrids. The indicators of photosynthetic efficiency showed a significant correlation between the efficiency with which the electron can reduce the final electron acceptors to photosystem I (RE0/ET0), PItotal and plant height. Also, the number of seeds per head showed a positive and very significant correlation with variable fluorescence in step I (VI) and a very highly significant negative correlation with the energy flow which reduces electron end acceptors on the acceptor side of photosystem I (RE0/RC). Using these analyses in sunflower breeding programmes could improve productivity and performance optimisation under changeable growing conditions.

    KEY WORDS:  genotype, leaf temperature, photosynthesis, photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll content, agronomic traits

Boron toxicity tolerance in barley may be related to intrinsically higher levels of reactive oxygen species in the shoots
Şükrü Serter Çatav, Eda Çetin, Emre Vural and Betül Bürün
Pages 113-124
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    ABSTRACT: There is considerable intra-and interspecific variation in boron (B) toxicity tolerance in crop plants. In this study, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms involved in tolerance to excess B in barley (Hordeum vulgare) in the early stages of plant development. To do this, B-sensitive (Bülbül-89) and B-tolerant (Tarm-92) barley cultivars were grown hydroponically under control and B stress conditions (10 mM H3BO3) for 4 or 7 days. The hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), total phenolic, total flavonoid, anthocyanin, proline, and total sugar contents, as well as DPPH radical scavenging capacity, were then determined for both cultivars. Our results showed that B treatment led to significant increases in the B concentration of the barley cultivars for both exposure times. However, there were no drastic differences in the B concentration of the roots and shoots between the sensitive and tolerant cultivars. While the dry root weight of Bülbül-89 was reduced after 7 days of B stress (p < 0.05), such a decrease was not observed in Tarm-92. The H2O2, MDA, proline, total sugar, and anthocyanin contents of both cultivars increased considerably in response to excess B during at least one treatment period (p < 0.05). The H2O2 content of Tarm-92 under control and B stress conditions was significantly greater than that of Bülbül-89, but there was no difference in the MDA content and radical scavenging capacity between the two cultivars. Finally, a 35% increase was found in the total flavonoid content of the Tarm-92 seedlings exposed to B stress for 4 days. In conclusion, the findings of this study suggest that tolerance to B toxicity in barley seedlings may be related to their capacity to tolerate higher levels of reactive oxygen species.

    KEY WORDS:  boron toxicity, tolerance mechanisms, barley, reactive oxygen species, antioxidant capacity, compatible solutes

An insight into seasonal changes of carbohydrates and phenolic compounds within the moss Polytrichum formosum (Polytrichaceae)
Marija V. Rajčić, Marija V. Ćosić, Tomislav B. Tosti, Danijela M. Mišić, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Marko S. Sabovljević and Milorad M. Vujičić
Pages 125-133
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    ABSTRACT: The same population of the polytrichaceous moss Polytrichum formosum was studied over four different periods of the year, analysing its carbohydrate and polyphenolic content and dynamics related to environmental seasonal changes. A total of 18 different types of sugars (including mono-, di-, tri- and tetra-saccharides) and four sugar alcohols were determined. Chlorogenic acid was the most represented among the 10 detected phenolic compounds. As inferred by the sugar content, sucrose, fructose and glucose were the most dominant sugars, but it is worth mentioning the abundance of trehalose and turanose at least during one of the observed seasons. The presence of four trisaccharides and one tetrasaccharide within P. formosum should be highlighted, as well as the first reports of turanose, isomaltotriose, panose and rhamnose within this species. The quantitative changes over the year clearly demonstrate carbohydrate dynamics in relation to seasonal climatic variation. Sugars are shown to be significant constitutive molecules within P. formosum, but also physiologically active compounds, i.e. signalling and energy storage and supplier molecules. We assume that phenolics have moss-supportive effects during oxidative stress and biotic interaction.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophyte, chemical content, climate, sugars, phenolics

Functional differentiation of two autochthonous cohabiting strains of Pleurotus ostreatus and Cyclocybe aegerita from Serbia in lignin compound degradation
Slobodan Stefanović, Jelena Dragišić Maksimović, Vuk Maksimović, Dragana Bartolić, Daniela Djikanović, Jasna Simonović Radosavljević, Dragosav Mutavdžić, Ksenija Radotić and Žaklina Marjanović
Pages 135-143
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    ABSTRACT: In nature, woody substrates are usually degraded by entire communities of microorganisms, which are nowadays jeopardised by anthropogenic influence, making it important to define the functional specificity of every species. Two strains of autochthonous fungi from Serbian lowland forests (Pleurotus ostreatus Ser1 and Cyclocybe aegerita Ser1) have been investigated for their ability to degrade lignin substrates [oak sawdust, oak isolated cell walls, and synthetic dehydrogenative polymer (DHP)]. Measuring the activities of the enzymes involved in lignin degradation was coupled with detecting the HPLC profile of the phenolics in the fungal growth media, and the lignin loss. While Pleurotus ostreatus Ser1 appeared highly effective within a very short time span, Cyclocybe aegerita Ser1 failed to degrade lignin. This situation was supported by very high enzyme activities and the low presence of phenolics in the media of Pleurotus ostreatus Ser1, compared to very low enzyme activity and the high presence of phenolics in the media with Cyclocybe aegerita Ser1.

    KEY WORDS:  wood degradation, wood decaying fungi, laccase, Mn peroxidase, lignin peroxidase

The alpine scrubs and dwarf heaths of the Balkan Peninsula - an exceptional center of floristic richness and endemism
Tijana Ilić, Nevena Kuzmanović, Snežana Vukojičić and Dmitar Lakušić
Pages 145-161
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: Alpine scrubs (Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo) and dwarf heaths (Loiseleurio procumbentis- Vaccinietea) are an exceptional assemblage of rich floristic units which contribute significantly to the overall diversity on the Balkan Peninsula. The main edificators of these types of habitats are mostly glacial relicts. Additionally, they are of the arctic, alpine, and boreal distribution types, which further emphasises their importance from the conservation point of view. We investigated their taxonomic richness, endemism, patterns of spatial distribution and diversification in the central Balkans as well as their coenotic composition using a comprehensive dataset (15,609 species occurrence data). The analyses were conducted at three hierarchical levels taking into account the ecological and geographic diversity of the alpine scrubs and dwarf heaths in the study area. The results obtained showed that in the alpine scrubs and dwarf heaths of the central Balkans 902 taxa (829 species and 73 subspecies) had been recorded, and that the proportion of endemics in these habitats is extremely high (ca. 22%). Our results further showed that in 180 randomly selected plots of medium size (≥ 10 and < 100 m2), the registered regional floristic richness for the unique sample size was 527 species, placing the alpine region of the Balkan Peninsula in second place among the richest alpine regions in the world. Moreover, significant regional differences in species composition were observed within the research area, with floristic richness and diversity increasing from north to south.

    KEY WORDS:  floristic diversity, endemics, relicts, hotspots, mountains, alpine region, environmental heterogeneity

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 11
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Marjan Niketić, Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Sorin Ștefănuț, Gabriela Tamas, Zbigniew Szeląg, Boris Assyov, Dragiša Savić, Lukáš Janošík, Matej Dudáš, Vladislav Kolarčik, Milorad Veljković, Vladan Djordjević, Sanja Šovran, Ana Knežević, Desislav Dimitrov, Beata Papp, Jovana Pantović, Predrag Lazarević, Eva Kabaš, Lado Kutnar i Janez Kermavnar
Pages 163-172
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: red algae Sheathia confusa, parasitic fungus Anthracoidea caryophylleae, mycorrhizal fugus Hydnellum caeruleum, bryoparasitic fungus Octospora erzbergeri, liverwort Cephaloziella baumgartneri, mosses Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Streblotrichum convolutum var. commutatum and Ulota crispula, monocots Ophrys bertolonii subsp. bertolonii, Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta and Spiranthes spiralis and dicots Androsace hedraeantha, Hieracium mrazii, Ramonda nathaliae and Triglochin palustris are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Androsace hedraeantha, Anthracoidea caryophylleae, Cephaloziella baumgartneri, Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Hieracium mrazii, Hydnellum caeruleum, Octospora erzbergeri, Ophrys bertolonii subsp. bertolonii, Ophrys scolopax subsp. cornuta, Ramonda nathaliae, Sheathia confusa, Spiranthes spiralis, Streblotrichum convolutum var. commutatum, Triglochin palustris, Ulota crispula, SE Europe

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 12
Gordana Tomović, Marko S. Sabovljević, Boris Assyov, Lado Kutnar, Petya Boycheva, Dobri Ivanov, Beata Papp, Jovana Pantović, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Elvedin Šabanović, Filip Jovanović, Sanja Šovran, Ana Knežević, Gordana R. Aleksić, Marjan Niketić, Veselin V. Shivarov, Galina Yaneva, Sorin Ștefănuț, Constantin-Ciprian Bîrsan, Zbigniew Szeląg, Vladan Djordjević, Eva Kabaš, Matej Dudáš i Vladislav Kolarčik
Pages 173-182
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: red algae Hildenbrandia rivularis, saprotrophic fungus Cryptomarasmius corbariensis, lichenised fungi Lecanora stenotropa, Micarea misella and Sticta sylvatica, liverworts Fossombronia caespitiformis and Peltolepis quadrata, mosses Dicranoweisia cirrata and Fissidens exilis, horsetail Equisetum × moorei, gymnosperm Juniperus virginiana, monocots Galanthus reginae-olgae subsp. vernalis and Spiranthes spiralis and dicots Linaria pelisseriana, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Pilosella rhodopea and Taraxacum erythrospermum are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Cryptomarasmius corbariensis, Dicranoweisia cirrata, Equisetum × moorei, Fissidens exilis, Fossombronia caespitiformis, Galanthus reginae-olgae subsp. vernalis, Hildenbrandia rivularis, Juniperus virginiana, Lecanora stenotropa, Linaria pelisseriana, Micarea misella, Parthenocissus quinquefolia, Peltolepis quadrata, Pilosella rhodopea, Spiranthes spiralis, Sticta sylvatica, Taraxacum erythrospermum, SE Europe

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 13
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Georgi Kunev, Hatıra Taşkın, Fuat Bozok, Sanja Šovran, Ana Knežević, Žan L. Cimerman, Simona Strgulc Krajšek, Nevena Kuzmanović, Predrag Lazarević, Boris Assyov, Dimitar Stoykov, Zbigniew Szeląg, Vladimir Vladimirov, Aleksandra B. Rakonjac, Snežana B. Simić, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Beata Papp, Jovana Pantović i Mihajlo Stanković
Pages 183-194
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: brown alga Heribaudiella fluviatilis, red alga Batrachospermum skujae, saprotrophic fungus Gnomonia geranii-macrorrhizi, mycorrhizal fungi Amanita alseides and Russula griseascens, liverwort Ricciocarpos natans, moss Blindia acuta, Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis and Pseudostereodon procerrimus, monocots Allium ampeloprasum, Carex ferruginea and Carex limosa and dicots Convolvulus althaeoides, Fumana aciphylla, Hieracium petrovae, Lamium bifidum subsp. bifidum and Ranunculus fontanus are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Allium ampeloprasum, Amanita alseides, Batrachospermum skujae, Blindia acuta, Carex ferruginea, Carex limosa, Convolvulus althaeoides, Fumana aciphylla, Gnomonia geraniimacrorrhizi, Hieracium petrovae, Heribaudiella fluviatilis, Lamium bifidum subsp. bifidum, Leucodon sciuroides var. morensis, Pseudostereodon procerrimus, Ranunculus fontanus, Ricciocarpos natans, Russula griseascens, SE Europe

Nucleolar number variation in Fritillaria (Liliaceae) taxa from Greece
Sofia Samaropoulou, Pepy Bareka, Aggelos Kanas and Georgia Kamari
Pages 195-202
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    ABSTRACT: The current study aims to estimate the most frequent number of nucleoli in taxonomically interesting Fritillaria species. Silver nitrate staining is applied using a modified protocol in 14 taxa and one hybrid from 17 populations from Greece. This is the first report of the number of nucleoli for all the Fritillaria taxa studied here. In general, the number of nucleoli ranges from 0-8, with Fritillaria pontica and F. theophrasti characterised by the greatest number of observed nucleoli. The results reinforce the classification of taxonomically intriguing taxa, such as Fritillaria sporadum and F. theophrasti, as distinct species, even though they have recently been considered synonyms of F. ehrhartii and F. pontica, respectively.

    KEY WORDS:  karyology, nucleoli, AgNO3, NORs, Greek endemics

List of reviewers for Botanica Serbica in 2022 — Acknowledgements
Pages 203-204
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