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    Volume 48
    Issue 1

Red-list of liverwort and hornwort species of Serbia: 2024 assessment
Marko S. Sabovljević, Jovana P. Pantović, Pavel Širka, Milorad M. Vujičić, Aneta D. Sabovljević and Beáta Papp
Pages 1–6
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT:  The new extinction risk assessments of hornwort and liverwort species of Serbia have been completed. Based on the available data, 40% of Serbian liverwort flora is under threat (status 2024). Additionally, 11% of Serbian liverwort flora is considered to be Data Deficient (DD) 11% Near Threatened (NT). These findings clearly indicate the urgent need for field investigation and species biology research in order to define the major threats and adequate conservation measures.

    KEY WORDS:  threat assessment, conservation, bryophyte, extinction risk.

Phenolic profile and antimicrobial activity of leaf extracts from five Artemisia species (Asteraceae)
Maja Radulović, Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Tamara Janakiev, Pedja Janaćković, Uroš Gašić, Branislav Knežević, Péter Radácsi and Milan Gavrilović
Pages 7–16
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    ABSTRACT:  This study aimed to analyse and evaluate the antimicrobial activity and phenolic compounds in the leaf extracts of five Artemisia species (A. alba, A. annua, A. campestris, A. pontica, and A. vulgaris), of which A. annua is of significant medical importance. Although many Artemisia plants are well known from ethnobotanical and phytochemical studies, the biological activity of Artemisiaspecies against phytopathogenic strains is scarcely investigated. Therefore, the presence of phenolic compounds and the antimicrobial activity of dichloromethane-methanol (1:1) leaf extracts of five Artemisia species against phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria were analysed. The phenolic compounds were determined by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In total, 13 phenolic compounds and quinic acid were identified and quantified. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant compound in all the samples, while the second dominant compounds were rutin in the A. alba, A. campestris, and A. pontica extracts, vitexin in A. annua, and esculin in the A. vulgaris extracts. Antifungal activity was tested against 12 micromycetes a using mycelial growth assay and the microdilution method. Antibacterial activity was tested against 18 bacterial strains using the well diffusion and microdilution methods. In each test, the highest activity was shown for the extracts of different Artemisia species. The most sensitive micromycetes were Monillinia laxa, Penicillium citreonigrum, and Botrytis cinerea, while Fusarium graminearum B1 was the most resistant. The analysed extracts showed moderate antibacterial activity only against Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris compared with all the other tested phytopathogens. The study shows that the leaf extracts of certain Artemisia species contain phenolic compounds and showed moderate antimicrobial activity against some species of fungi and bacteria.

    KEY WORDS:  antibacterial activity, antifungal activity, flavonoids, phenolic acids

Biological activities of Liquidambar orientalis: antibiofilm, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and miRNA expressions
Dogukan Mutlu, Batikan Gunal, Mucahit Secme, Naime Nur Bozbeyoglu Kart, Gulcin Abban Mete, Nazime Mercan Dogan, Gurkan Semiz, Semin Melahat Fenkci and Sevki Arslan
Pages 17–26
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    ABSTRACT:  Due to its strong biological, pharmacological, and medical activities and rich chemical content, Liquidambar orientalis, known for its resinous exudate storax, has a widespread and well-established ethnopharmacological use. Although it is known that storax has anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant, wound-healing and other ethnomedicinal properties, the number of existing scientific studies is very limited. In this context, the aims of this study were to determine the antibiofilm activity of storax and its cytotoxic and apoptotic effects in A549 lung cancer cells. In addition, with this study, it is also possible to make a very comprehensive biological evaluation by determining the effect of storax on certain microRNA expressions. According to our results, L. orientalis storax decreases cell proliferation in A549 lung cancer cells and the IC50 value was determined at 31.5 μg/mL at 24h. Storax also induces apoptosis via upregulating CASP3, 8, 9, and Bax gene expression and downregulating Bcl-2 expressions in A549 cells. Furthermore, storax decreases the expression of miR-146a, miR-21, and miR-223, while increasing the expression of miR-155. Storax inhibits biofilm formation and reduces the preformed biofilm of microbial strains including Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33862), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853) and Candida albicans (ATCC 64548). The results suggest that storax has strong cytotoxic, apoptotic and antibiofilm properties and thus promising potential in medicine.

    KEY WORDS:  antibiofilm activity, A549 cells, cytotoxicity, Liquidambar orientalis, microRNA.

Current distribution, trends, abiotic and biotic preferences of two Elodea species in Bulgaria
Gana Gecheva, Tasimir Yakovski and Eli Pavlova-Traykova
Pages 27–34
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    ABSTRACT: Two invasive aquatic macrophyte species from the genus Elodea and their distribution in Bulgaria were studied. The research was based on 653 field surveys from the period 2009–2022. Elodea records constitute to only 6% of the database. Between the two species studied, E. nuttallii exhibited a wider distribution both in rivers and lakes (natural and artificial). Several instances of invaders’ dominance were observed, with E. nuttallii showing dominance patterns mainly in lakes, and E. canadensis in rivers. Both species were distributed in aquatic habitats with a wide variation in abiotic characteristics, except for the dominant substrate. E. nuttallii showed a more significant altitudinal range reaching above 1500 m. Such altitudinal variations resulted in diverse ecological habitats in terms of abiotic factors such as temperature and light intensity. The studied aquatic macrophyte communities demonstrated average species richness. Ceratophyllum demersum and Myriophyllum spicatum were the most commonly recorded representatives of the native aquatic flora. Canadian waterweed demonstrated the ability to form dense communities in rivers, while Nuttall’s waterweed retained average values of abundance. A case of natural disappearance within the Elodea species has been documented. The systematised information covering a 13-year period could serve to identify strategic areas for monitoring aquatic IAS and their management.

    KEY WORDS:  Elodea canadensis, Elodea nuttallii, invasive alien species.

Dynamic changes in rhizosphere bacterial communities of Rhododendron simsii at different growth stages
Jun Fu, Yirong Sun, Yuqing Hu, Lan Lu, Zhiwei Huang, Chunyu Zhang, and Shuzhen Wang
Pages 35–45
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    ABSTRACT:  Rhododendron simsii plays important roles in maintaining ecological system stability in the north temperate zone. However, its natural growth is greatly affected by soil microorganisms, particularly rhizosphere microbes. In this study, a comparative analysis was conducted of the bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere of R. simsii at the old, adult, juvenile, and seedlings stages. The results showed that Proteobacteria (38.53%‒47.63%), Actinobacteria (23.45%‒34.03%), and Acidobacteria (10.33%‒17.79%) were the dominant phyla in the R. simsii rhizosphere. In particular, 3, 5, 42, and 33 OTUs were unique to the soil samples of ‘old trees’, ‘adult trees’, ‘juvenile trees’, and ‘seedlings’, respectively. Across four sets of R. simsii rhizosphere microbes sampled from seedlings to old trees, the OTUs first increased, then decreased, and finally increased. Overall, alpha diversity (Chao, ACE, and Sobs) revealed similar trends with the highest value i‒n recorded for the rhizosphere sample of ‘adult trees’ and the lowest for the ‘seedlings’ sample. The bacterial genera in the rhizosphere samples from ‘old trees’ and ‘adult trees’ exhibited close clustering. Notably, the R. simsii population of ‘juvenile trees’, demonstrating the highest genetic diversity, were rich in Bradyrhizobium and Streptomycetes. This research serves to benefit the domestication of wild R. simsii and other Rhododendron resources.

    KEY WORDS:  bacterial populations, community structure, high-throughput sequencing, rhizosphere, Rhododendron species

The phytocoenology, distribution, and habitat preferences of the species Aldrovanda vesiculosa (Droseraceae) in Romania
Simona Dumitrița Chirilă, Mihai Doroftei, Kiril Vassilev, and Silviu Covaliov
Pages 47–60
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    ABSTRACT: Aldrovanda vesiculosa is an endangered aquatic species in Romania which grows in shallow waters where competition with other aquatic species is limited or absent. A comprehensive overview of the species’ distribution and habitat preferences in Romania is currently lacking. In this context, this study aimed to update the distribution and habitat preferences of the species. Localities from Dobrogea, Oltenia, Muntenia, Transylvania, and Crișana represented the study areas. For the vegetation classification, 71 relevés with A. vesiculosa were analysed. The size of the sample areas ranged from 4 m2 to 25 m2. Vegetation syntaxonomic assignment was performed by agglomerative hierarchical clustering. The optimal number of clusters was chosen using the corrected Rand and Silhouette indices. Diagnostic species were identified for each cluster based on the indicator value index (IndVal). The study results showed that the dominant majority of the previous populations of A. vesiculosa (89%) were no longer identified from Romania in the 2008‒2021 period. Recently (2021‒2023), they were found only in six localities in the Dobrogea, Transylvania, and Oltenia regions. The causes of the disappearance of the species are eutrophication and the lowering of the water level. From a phytocoenological point of view, 11 plant communities were identified where A. vesiculosa is found. According to the EUNIS classification, this species inhabits wetlands (Q) and inland surface waters (C). In conclusion, translocation is suggested as the primary conservation measure for protecting the species.

    KEY WORDS:  habitat characteristics, phytocoenology, recent distribution, translocation, waterwheel.

Vegetation affinity of Epipactis albensis (Orchidaceae) in Central Europe
Richard Hrivnák, Elżbieta Żołubak and Anna Jakubska-Busse
Pages 61–67
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    ABSTRACT: Epipactis albensis is an obligate autogamous orchid species which is widely distributed in central European countries. However, its phytocoenological affinities are not well known. They were investigated in this study based on 17 phytosociological relevés from the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Poland obtained from the available literature and database sources, where the species has its centre of occurrence. The cluster analyses revealed three groups of vegetation types belonging to the hardwood floodplain forests of the Fraxino-Quercion roboris alliance, the riparian alder forests of Alnion incanae and the beech forests of Fagion sylvaticae. Brachypodium sylvaticum, Circaea lutetiana, Geum urbanum, and Urtica dioica (frequency 76%), followed by Dactylis glomerata agg. and the alien plant Impatiens parviflora (65%) are the most co-occurring species. This phytosociological study has highlighted the need for further and more detailed research supported by the collection of new vegetation data from across the range of E. albensis.

    KEY WORDS:  autogamous orchid, Czech Republic, Epipactis, floodplain and beech forests, orchids, Poland, Slovakia

First records of two genera and 20 species of fungi (Basidiomycota, Agaricales) in Montenegro
Ilinka Ćetković, Zdenko Tkalčec, Suzana Malidžan, Ivana Kušan, and Armin Mešić
Pages 69–77
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    ABSTRACT: Two genera (Chamaemyces and Hydropus) and 20 species of fungi were recorded for the first time for the Montenegrin funga (mycobiota), comprising 27 records from seven municipalities. Basic geographical and ecological data are given for all the records. Each species is shown with a photograph of the basidiomata in the field and is briefly annotated.

    KEY WORDS:  basidiomycetes, biodiversity, biogeography

European endemic Ptychostomum minii (Bryaceae, Bryophyta) - new to Turkey and its significant range extention to SW Asia
Tülay Ezer, Ahmet Uygur, Ali Keskin, Harun Çulha, Nevzat Batan, and Mevlüt Alataş
Pages 79–84
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, Ptychostomum minii, a European endemic species is recorded for the first time in Turkey and Southwest Asia. The species was found in the Bolkar Mountains in Turkey. Insights into recent discoveries, along with accompanying photographs, ecology, and location specifics in Turkey are presented.

    KEY WORDS:  Bolkar Mountains, Bryophytes, endemic, mosses, new record, Turkey

Chara squamosa (Characeae, Charophyceae) in Serbia - insights from the taxonomic revision of the BEOU charophyte collection and recent field records
Ivana Trbojević, Aleksandra Marković, Jasmina Šinžar Sekulić, Gordana Subakov Simić, and Roman Romanov
Pages 85–92
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    ABSTRACT: Chara gymnophylla is one of the first charophyte species reported for Serbia during the late 19th and the early 20th centuries, and at that time it was the second in terms of the frequency of its occurrence in the country. General taxonomic misinterpretations in the past resulted in the concealment of another species, C. squamosa, within the findings attributed to C. gymnophylla. In Serbia, Chara gymnophylla was treated as C. vulgaris var. gymnophylla, and as such was not listed as a species inhabiting the country. Recent improvements in the taxonomic concept for C. squamosa prompted a revision of the rich material of C. gymnophylla, C. vulgaris var. gymnophylla, C. vulgaris var. nitelloides, and C. rohlenae, deposited in the BEOU collection. The revision process was conducted concurrently with fieldwork and the collection of new material. Our study confirmed the presence of C. squamosa in Serbia for the first time. Based on numerous revised samples from the BEOU collection, as well as recently collected specimens, the species’ continuous presence in Serbia since 1976 was confirmed. Chara squamosa and C. gymnophylla were thus added to the list of Characeae species inhabiting Serbia, and categorised as Critically Endangered according to the criteria outlined by IUCN. An overview of the biogeography, ecology and taxonomy of C. squamosa in Serbia is provided, particularly in relation to C. gymnophylla. The BEOU charophyte collection proved to represent a valuable and relevant resource for critical taxonomic revisions. The results presented in this study strongly encourage further studies on C. squamosa and C. gymnophylla distribution in the Balkan region and wider area in order to gain a deeper understanding of the species’ ecology and the further improvement of their taxonomic concepts.

    KEY WORDS:  Charophytes, Chara gymnophylla, Chara squamosa, distribution, stoneworts, the Balkans

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 16
Gordana Tomović, Marko S. Sabovljević, Vladan Djordjević, Svetlana Krdžić, Marjan Niketić, Sanja Šovran, Ana Knežević, Péter Szűcs, Dimitar Stoykov, Miruna-Maria Ștefănuț, Danijela Vidaković, Jelena Krizmanić, Milana Ranimirović, Uroš Buzurović, Lazar Milivojević, Snežana Vukojičić, Lado Kutnar, Nevena Kuzmanović, Ivana Stevanoski, Ivana Trbojević and Jasmina Šinžar Sekulić
Pages 93–104
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: diatoms Discostella asterocostata and Stephanodiscus hantzschiif. tenuis, red alga Bangia atropurpurea, green alga Ulva pilifera, saprotrophic fungi Didymella vitalbina and Phragmotrichum rivoclarinum, mosses Buxbaumia aphylla, Sphagnum divinum, and Tortella fasciculata, monocots Anacamptis × nicodemi, Epipactis palustris, Epipogium aphyllum, and Gymnadenia frivaldii and dicots Androsace lactea, Drosera rotundifolia, Potentilla montenegrina, and Tozzia alpina subsp. carpathica are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Anacamptis × nicodemi, Androsace lactea, Bangia atropurpurea, Buxbaumia aphylla, Didymella vitalbina, Discostella asterocostata, Drosera rotundifolia, Epipogium aphyllum, Epipactis palustris, Gymnadenia frivaldii, Phragmotrichum rivoclarinum, Potentilla montenegrina, Sphagnum divinum, Stephanodiscus hantzschii f. tenuis, Tortella fasciculata, Tozzia alpina subsp. carpathica, Ulva pilifera, SE Europe

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 17
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Gabriela Tamas, Sorin Ștefănuț, Smiljana Janković, Nemanja Rajčević, Lado Kutnar, Teodor T. Denchev, Cvetomir M. Denchev, Vladan Djordjević, Svetlana Krdžić, Eleftheria Antaloudaki, Gordana Kasom, Dimitar Stoykov, Desislav Dimitrov, Gordana R. Aleksić, Pablo Alvarado, Žan Lobnik Cimerman and Dren Dolničar
Pages 105–116
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: hemibiotrophic fungus Juglanconis juglandina, lichenised fungi Micarea lignaria var. lignaria, Pertusaria flavicans, and Placidiopsis custnani, parasitic fungi Entyloma gaillardianum and Stegocintractia luzulae, saprotrophic fungi Hericium coralloides, Hericium flagellum, and Rosellinia corticium, liverwort Sauteria alpina, mosses Acaulon triquetrum, Buxbaumia aphylla, and Dicranum viride, monocot Epipactis palustris and dicots Clinopodium vardarense, Helichrysum doerfleri and Opopanax chironium subsp. bulgaricum.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Acaulon triquetrum, Buxbaumia aphylla, Clinopodium vardarense, Dicranum viride, Entyloma gaillardianum, Epipactis palustris, Helichrysum doerfleri, Hericium coralloides, Hericium flagellum, Juglanconis juglandina, Micarea lignaria var. lignaria, Opopanax chironium subsp. bulgaricum, Pertusaria flavicans, Placidiopsis custnani, Rosellinia corticium, Sauteria alpina, Stegocintractia luzulae, SE Europe

Waterlogging affects the anti-melanogenic properties of Platycodon grandiflorus roots
Hyo Seong Ji and Tae Kyung Hyun
Pages 117–123
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF| Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: Waterlogging caused by climate change has threatened the growth and production yield of crops. Although morphological and physiological changes in major crops under waterlogging have been well-defined, the effect of waterlogging on the quality of medicinal plants remains largely unknown. In this study, we analysed waterlogging-induced variations in the anti-melanogenic properties of Platycodon grandiflorus roots. Based on the analysis of melanin production and the expression levels of melanogenic enzymes, we found that waterlogging negatively impacted the anti-melanogenic properties of P. grandiflorus roots. Using UPLC-ESI-Q-TOFMS, we identified 12 compounds including platycodin D3 and platycodin A, which showed differences between untreated and waterlogging-treated roots. In addition, waterlogging led to the suppression of the triterpenoid saponin biosynthetic pathway. Taken together, our results will form an important basis for understanding the impact of climate change on the quality of medicinal plants

    KEY WORDS:  anti-melanogenic property, Platycodon grandifloras, triterpenoid saponins, waterlogging

List of reviewers for Botanica Serbica in 2023 — Acknowledgements
Pages 125–126
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