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    Volume 47
    Issue 2

Ferulago brachylobae-Daucetum setifolii J. López-Tirado, ass. nova from southern Spain
Javier López-Tirado
Pages 205–213
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT:  Ferulago brachylobae-Daucetum setifolii, ass. nova is described from the southern edge of the Sierra Morena in the Córdoba province (Andalusia, Spain). It is characterised by the two hemicryptophytes naming the association, usually located in heliophilous and rupicolous or scree degraded areas, shaping an open community of low cover. Seventeen plots were studied during late summer in the surroundings of Córdoba town (the West Iberian Mediterranean province, the Luso-Extremadurese subprovince and the Marianese-Monchiquese sector). The new association grows in the thermo-Mediterranean and meso-Mediterranean thermotypes belonging to the Rumici indurati-Dianthion lusitani alliance, the Phagnalo saxatilis-Rumicetalia indurati order and the Phagnalo-Rumicetea indurati class.

    KEY WORDS:  aestival plants, Daucus setifolius, Ferulago brachyloba, new association, southern Spain, vegetation.

Modelling the distribution of the Caucasian oak (Quercus macranthera) in Western Asia under future climate change scenarios
Nihal Kenar and Zaal Kikvidze
Pages 215-226
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    ABSTRACT:  The Caucasian oak (Quercus macranthera), a native tree of Western Asia, typically grows at high altitudes where the effects of climate change are particularly notable. We analysed the climatic determinants of the current distribution of Q. macranthera and assessed the redistribution of areas suitable for this species as a consequence of climate change. We described the current range of distribution and predicted the potential geographical distribution of the Caucasian oak using species distribution models and five algorithms from two Shared Socio-Economic Pathways (SSPs: SSP 1‒2.6 and 5‒8.5) for the years 2035, 2055, and 2085, which are based on two General Circulation Models (GCMs). The Random Forest algorithm most accurately described the current distribution of Q. macranthera. SSP 1‒2.6 and SSP5‒8.5 predicted a pronounced contraction of the highly suitable habitat for the Caucasian oak due to the increase in temperatures and changes in seasonal precipitation dynamics, that more intensive climate change could lead to a greater loss of highly suitable habitats, and that the populations of Q. macranthera could survive only in the Alborz Mountains (northern Iran) and in the Great Caucasus Mountains. Our work helps to establish conservation strategies for species monitoring in order to minimise the potential impacts of climate change.

    KEY WORDS:  CMIP6, global warming, potentially suitable habitat, random forest, species distribution models

The seed germination properties of two hyperaccumulator plant species with the potential for Ni agromining
Dimitrios Kyrkas, Nikolaos Mantzos, George Patakioutas, Guillaume Echevarria, Evaggelos Filis, Panayiotis G. Dimitrakopoulos and Maria Konstantinou
Pages 227-233
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    ABSTRACT:  The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different nickel concentrations and light in combination with storage conditions and storage time on the seed germination ability of two serpentine-endemic nickel hyperaccumulating species (Bornmuellera emarginata and B. tymphaea). The seeds of both species were collected from natural populations in the Pindus Mountain range, Greece in early July and stored in a refrigerator (4°C) and in laboratory conditions (22°C). The seeds were exposed to a range of nickel concentrations typical of non-ultramafic ‒ ultramafic gradient in two light environments (12 h photoperiod and continuous darkness). The nickel concentration only had a significant effect on B. emarginata, decreasing its seed germination rate with increasing Ni concentrations. The storage temperature significantly affected the germination percentage of both species and it was higher at 4°C compared to 22°C. A higher germination rate (> 60%) was observed for 5‒8-month-old seeds, but both species generally showed significantly higher germination rates in the tests conducted seven months after seed ripening in the field. A higher germination rate was observed in a 12-hour photoperiod than in continuous darkness only for B. tymphaea. This study provides guidelines on the germination capacity of two obligate nickel hyperaccumulators with a potential for use in agromining systems.

    KEY WORDS:  ultramafic, nickel, serpentinophytes, germinability, seed storage, Bornmuellera

A new species of Circinaria (Pertusariales, Megasporaceae) from Pakistan
Muhammad Shahid Iqbal, Iram Fayyaz, Najam-ul-Sehar Afshan, Fatima Iftikhar and Abdul Nasir Khalid
Pages 235-239
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    ABSTRACT: Circinaria pakistanica sp. nov. is described from the Himalayan moist temperate forests in Pakistan. The morphology, chemistry and ITS sequence support its distinction from other species of this genus. The taxon is characterised by a whitish to blackish grey thallus, greyish white epruinose apothecia, flat to slightly concave areoles, a hymenium 110–200 μm high, large ascospores (22–38 × 18–32 μm) and the absence of pycnidia; it also differs from related species in the ITS region.

    KEY WORDS:  Ganga Choti, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, phylogenetic relationships

The antibacterial activity of culture filtrates and mycelia of selected strains of macromycetes from the genus Hericium
Margarita Lomberg, Tetiana Krupodorova, Viktoriia Krasinko and Оksana Mykchaylova
Pages 241-249
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    ABSTRACT:  The aim of the study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of selected strains of the genus Hericium, belonging to basidiomycetes, from the IBK Mushroom Culture Collection of the M.G. Kholodny Institute of Botany of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. A total of 14 strains including H. abietis, H. cirrhatum, H. coralloides, and H. erinaceus were investigated. The strains were cultivated on a liquid glucose-peptone-yeast medium. Both the homogenised mycelium and filtrate of these fungi were evaluated against gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus luteus, and Staphylococcus aureus) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacteria by the disk diffusion and cylinder methods. The activity of the strains varied significantly. Depending on the techniques assay, species, strain, and stage of fungal development, the inhibition zone of the tested bacteria ranged from 5.3 mm to 20.0 mm. In general, the antibacterial potential of the culture filtrates of the investigated species was significantly higher than their mycelia activity. The homogenised mycelium showed potentially good results only against E. coli. The antibacterial activities of the H. abietis and H. cirrhatum species were observed for the first time. To the best of our knowledge, the ability of H. coralloides to inhibit the growth of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus has not been previously reported. The obtained results indicate the ability of the studied Hericium species to produce antibacterial metabolites with a wide and narrow spectrum of action which might have potential health benefits and could be recommended for the further analysis, isolation and identification of potentially promising antibacterial compounds in pharmacology.

    KEY WORDS:  antibacterial action, basidiomycetes, culture filtrate, mycelium

The distribution of alien species Geranium sibiricum in Slovakia
Matej Dudáš, Jana Májeková and Michal Slezák
Pages 251-258
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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents data on the distribution and spread of the alien vascular plant species Geranium sibiricum in Slovakia. Greater attention should be given to the existing data on its chorology and habitat preferences in the country. Some pertinentt records are dispersed in various local literature sources and herbaria. In Slovakia, this alien species was recorded for the first time in 1924, but the significant increase in localities started after 1980. G. sibiricum has been found in 67 localities scattered irregularly throughout the Pannonian and Carpathian phytogeographical regions. It has been noted in a wide range of anthropogenic habitats at low to middle elevations. Recently, it has spread mainly in urban areas in eastern Slovakia and along railway tracks in northern and western Slovakia.

    KEY WORDS:  Central Europe, chorology, introduction, neophyte, Siberian Cranesbill, spreading, synanthropic habitats, traffic

Optimising in vitro culture conditions for the truffle Tuber brumale
Reza Salehi Molkabadi, Gregory Bonito, Kamran Ghasemi, Mohammad Ali Tajick Ghanbary and Fatemeh Raouf Fard
Pages 259-269
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    ABSTRACT: The vegetative propagation of ectomycorrhizal truffle fungi is limited by their slow mycelial growth. Many factors including media, isolate genotypes and environmental conditions can alter fungal mycelial growth rates. This study aimed to improve the in vitro growth rate of Tuber brumale by determining the optimal carbohydrate and nitrogen sources, temperature and pH. After 8 weeks, the highest level of growth and densest hyphal branching were recorded in the medium containing glucose as the main carbohydrate. For nitrogen, glutamine (200 mg N l-1) provided the greatest hyphal growth and density compared to the other amino acid treatments. Regarding temperature, 16°C proved to be optimal for T. brumale growth and branching. Media of pH 6 and pH 7 were most favourable for the growth of T. brumale. The results from this research provide baseline data on the vegetative nutrition of T. brumale and have implications for the in vitro culture of winter truffle hyphae.

    KEY WORDS:  growth medium, hyphal branching, hyphal extension, mycelium, winter truffle

Elicitors enhanced the production of bioactive compounds in shoot cultures of Hypericum amblysepalum
Hilal Surmuş Asan
Pages 271-277
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, we examined the effects of elicitors MeJA (Methyl jasmonate) and JA (Jasmonic acid) (50, 100, and 200 μM) on the growth and production of 15 phenolic compounds in shoot cultures of Hypericum amblysepalum using the LC-MS/MS method. The biomass production increased on shoots elicited with 50 μM JA and MeJA. However, higher concentrations of these elicitors had a negative effect on the growth of the shoot cultures, while simultaneously resulting in an increase in the secondary metabolite content. The elicitor MeJA (especially 200 μM MeJA) was more effective in terms of increasing the phenolic compound contents. The highest amounts of rutin (2.8 fold), astragalin (2.4 fold), protocatechuic acid (2.4 fold), hesperidin (2 fold), pseudohypericin (1.9 fold), chlorogenic acid (1.4 fold), and hypericin (1.9 fold) were obtained from the shoots elicited with MeJA (200 μM). In addition, the application of elicitor JA 200 μM increased the amount of luteolin (2 fold), quercitrin (1.9 fold), apigetrin (4 fold), apigenin (2.9 fold), and hyperoside (1.3 fold). The current study revealed that specific secondary plant metabolites can be regulated by exogenous elicitors in shoot cultures of H. ambysepalum, thus highlighting their promise as a very valuable source of raw materials for the pharmaceutical industry.

    KEY WORDS:  Hypericum amblysepalum, jasmonic acid, methyl jasmonate, shoot culture.

The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Rhododendron fortunei: structural comparative and phylogenetic analysis in the Ericaceae family
Yunli Xiao, Wanjing Zhang, Yirong Sun, Zhiliang Li, Jiaojun Yu, Chunyu Zhang and Shuzhen Wang
Pages 279-290
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: Rhododendron fortunei (Ericaceae) possesses valuable horticultural and medicinal values. However, the genomic information on R. fortunei is very limited. In this study, the complete chloroplast genome (cp) of R. fortunei was assembled and annotated, SSR loci were characterised, comparative genomic analysis was carried out, and phylogenetic research was also performed. The results showed that the R. fortunei cp genome was of a typical quadripartite structure (200,997 bp). The lengths of the large single copy region (LSC), the inverted repeat regions (IR), and the small single copy region (SSC) were 109,151 bp, 2,604 bp, and 44,619 bp, respectively. A total of 147 unique genes were identified, including 99 protein-coding genes, 42 tRNA genes, and 6 rRNA genes, respectively. Leucine (11.51%) and cysteine (1.15%) were the highest and lowest representative amino acids, respectively. The total of 30 codons with obvious codon usage bias were all A/U-ending codons. Among the 77 simple sequence repeats, the majority were mononucleotide A/T repeats located in the intergenic spacer region. Five gene regions showed high levels of nucleotide diversity (Pi > 0.03). The comparative genome analysis revealed 7 hotspot intergenic regions (trnI-rpoB, trnTrpl16, rpoA-psbJ, rps7-rrn16, ndhI-rps16, rps16-rps19, and rrn16-trnI), showing great potential as molecular makers for species authentication. Expansion and contraction were detected in the IR region of the R. fortunei cp genome. In the phylogenetic tree, R. fortunei was closely related to R. platypodum. This research will be beneficial for evolutionary and genetic diversity studies of R. fortunei and related species among the Ericaceae family.

    KEY WORDS:  Rhododendron fortunei, nextgeneration sequencing, chloroplast genome, comparative genomics, conservation genetics

An insight into the variation of the antioxidative and antibacterial activity of extracts from populations of the subalpine and montane lichen Cetraria islandica
Margaréta Marcinčinová, Viktória Tuptová, Ľudmila Tkáčiková, Blažena Drábová, Nora Haring and Martin Bačkor
Pages 291-230
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    ABSTRACT: Lichens are supra-organismal symbiotic systems found in most environments. Environmental factors, such as temperature, altitude, precipitation, UV irradiation, or pathogens, significantly influence the physiology of lichens, and thus their secondary metabolism. The thalli of the same lichen species from different environments exhibit variation in the production of secondary metabolites and protective pigments. We selected two populations of the lichen Cetraria islandica from habitats differing in altitude, temperature, and precipitation. Then we compared their antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The lichen thalli were divided into two parts: the upper parts were exposed to light and the lower parts hidden from extensive radiation. The results show that the thalli from harsh alpine environments have higher 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) radical scavenging activity suggesting better tolerance to oxidative stress. On the other hand, the individuals from milder montane environments generally produce more secondary metabolites, leading to increased antibacterial activity of the extracts. The extracts of C. islandica containing fumarprotocetraric and paraconic acids exhibit inhibitory effects against gram-positive bacteria (e.g. Staphylococcus aureus) and some lower activity against gram-negative bacteria (e.g. Escherichia coli).

    KEY WORDS:  agar diffusion method, DPPH assay, montane zone, phenols, secondary metabolites, subalpine zone

Arable bryophytes from Northeastern Slovenia with new and interesting national records
Žan Lobnik Cimerman, Darja Kopitar and Simona Strgulc Krajšek
Pages 301-308
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    ABSTRACT: We investigated the arable bryophyte flora in the Northeastern region of Slovenia. We found three new bryophyte taxa for Slovenia: Bryum violaceum, Dicranella staphylina and Hydrogonium consanguineum var. kurilense. The presence of the regionally extinct Ephemerum cohaerens was confirmed, and several other species from the National Red List of bryophytes were also recorded. A list of 25 bryophyte species growing on the studied arable fields is presented and commented on.

    KEY WORDS:  Slovenia, flora, arable, mosses, liverworts, new national report, Red List

Expression of heavy metal ATPases (HMA1 and HMA3) in Brassica nigra and B. juncea grown at different Cu levels
Nuriye Meraklı and Abdulrezzak Memon
Pages 309-316
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    ABSTRACT: Metal pollution is a major environmental problem which affects agriculture and human health. Turkey has significant Cu mining areas in Diyarbakır and its surrounding areas (Southeast Anatolia). Several crop plants cultivated in these areas are irrigated with water from the Tigris, and most agricultural lands are contaminated with Cu. Brassica nigra and B. juncea are well-known metal accumulator plant species which can hyperaccumulate metals, including copper, in their shoots. The purpose of this study is to evaluate their potential for the phytoremediation of Cu from these contaminated areas as an environmentally friendly and cost-effective means of reducing Cu-contamination. In this research, B. nigra and B. juncea plants were grown in soil at different Cu concentrations (0 to 1000 μM) and showed no toxicity symptoms while accumulating a significant amount of metal in their leaves. In the leaves of both species, the Cu content increased significantly with the increase in the Cu level in the media. HMA1 (Heavy Metal ATPase 1) in the leaves of both plant species gradually increased with increased Cu levels until 50 μM, then its expression slowly decreased with the further increase in Cu levels. The expression of HMA3 also increased with an increase in Cu in the leaves of both plant species. However, its expression pattern differed from that of HMA1. Our data showed that an increase in Cu levels in the leaves triggers the expression of both genes, suggesting that they play an active role in Cu detoxification. We propose that these plant species could be used for the decontamination of Cu from polluted soils. These data also indicate that Cu accumulation and tolerance in both plant species is probably a multi-genetic response, possibly involving several other transporter genes in the stress signal pathway. Hence, we also explored the expression of the other metal transporters, such as other HMAs (HMAs 5‒8), Nramps (e.g., Nramp3), COPT proteins, and some Cu chaperons in these plant species.

    KEY WORDS:  metal toxicity, gene expression, metal transporters, phytoremediation

Proteome response of winter-hardy wheat to cold acclimation
Mohsen Janmohammadi and Naser Sabaghnia
Pages 317-324
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: The proteome analysis of winter crops during cold acclimation and overwintering can provide important information for designing breeding processes. The current experiment was carried out to investigate the proteome changes in frost-tolerant winter wheat (cv. Norstar) during different cold acclimation (CA) periods under field conditions in a cold and high-altitude region by two-dimensional gel-based proteomic techniques. The results showed that frost tolerance significantly increased by CA and the lethal freezing temperatures (LT50) 10, 14, and 18 weeks after seed sowing were -28°C, -22°C, and -10°C, respectively. By the beginning of the reproductive stage (double ridge stage), the LT50 values had decreased significantly. Around 1000 protein spots were distinguished by Coomassie staining on the gels. The changes in the proteins during the CA often occurred in those with a functional role in photosynthesis, energy production (glycolysis), transcription, chaperone-like activities, membrane and cytoskeleton reorganisation, transport, redox adjustments, and signalling. The results revealed that changes in chloroplast proteins, certain transcription factors such as MADS-box transcription factor 26, and antioxidant enzymes (ascorbate peroxidase) show a similar trend to freezing tolerance, and their expression decreases with the onset of reproductive growth and the loss of freezing tolerance. During the acclimation period, most of the changes were focused on defence systems and cytoskeleton rearrangement, while, photosynthesis, and energy production became the main priority at the beginning of reproductive growth.

    KEY WORDS:  antioxidant, freezing tolerance, glycolysis, photosynthetic, proteomics, cold-responsive proteins

Physiological responses of bread and durum wheat seeds to osmotic stress and salinity in the early germination stage
Şükrü Serter Çatav
Pages 325-336
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: Determining the mechanisms underlying tolerance to osmotic stress and salinity during the germination period is an essential task in order to improve agricultural production in arid and semi-arid areas. In this work, the seeds of bread and durum wheat cultivars were treated with different concentrations of polyethylene glycol (PEG)-6000 and NaCl for 1 week, and half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of germination were calculated. The seeds were then exposed to IC50 values of NaCl and PEG-6000 for 2 days in order to assess their physiological and biochemical properties. Alpha and beta amylase enzyme activities, the reducing sugar, total sugar, proline, protein, and H2O2 contents, and DPPH radical scavenging activity of the seeds were determined by spectrophotometric methods. The results showed that the bread wheat seeds had a much higher tolerance to excess salt and osmotic stress than the durum wheat seeds. In particular, the average IC50 value of NaCl for the bread wheat cultivars was almost twice that for the durum wheat cultivars. The imbibition test revealed that the water uptake capacity of the seeds did not explain the difference in tolerance to these stress conditions. On the other hand, the bread wheat seeds exhibited constitutively higher proline, total sugar, and H2O2 contents as well as antioxidant capacity compared to the durum wheat seeds (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the current findings suggest that the interplay of oxidative metabolism and compatible solutes may contribute to improving germination tolerance under water deficit and salinity conditions in wheat.

    KEY WORDS:  salinity, osmotic stress, germination, wheat, reactive oxygen species, compatible solutes

New combination and typification of Tanacetum parthenium var. flosculosum (Asteraceae) and its first record from Turkey
Barış Bani and Pelin Acar
Pages 337-345
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: In this study, a discoid capitulate variety of Tanacetum parthenium was recorded for the first time in Turkey. Additionally, the new combination of the name is given as Tanacetum parthenium var. flosculosum. Moreover, the varietal name was neotypified with material from Vaillants’ collection at P.

    KEY WORDS:  Asia, feverfew, neotype, new record, nomenclatural change

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 14
Gordana Tomović, Marko S. Sabovljević, Veselin V. Shivarov, Boris Assyov, Fuat Bozok, Gabriela Tamas, Sorin Ștefănuț, Ranko Perić, Jelena Knežević , Siniša Škondrić, Ivana Trbojević, Vanja Milovanović, Danijela Vidaković, Jelena Krizmanić, Dimitar Stoykov, Simona Strgulc Krajšek, Branka Trčak, Vladan Djordjević, Sanja Z. Djurović, Uroš Buzurović, Elvedin Šabanović, Aleksandar Knežević, Sanja Šovran, Beata Papp, Jovana Pantović and Aneta D. Sabovljević
Pages 347-359
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: diatom algae Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Cyclotella meduanae, and Stephanodiscus lacustris, mycorrhizal fungi Alessioporus ichnusanus and Amanita mairei, saprotrophic fungi Diaporthe oncostoma, Stropharia albonitens and Pseudomassaria chondrospora, lichenised fungus Acrocordia subglobosa, stonewort Chara connivens, mosses Buxbaumia viridis, Tortella fasciculata and Tortula protobryoides, monocots Epipactis pontica, Gymnadenia frivaldii, and Orchis italica and dicots Callitriche brutia, Callitriche platycarpa and Epilobium nutans are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Acrocordia subglobosa, Alessioporus ichnusanus, Amanita mairei, Buxbaumia viridis, Callitriche brutia, Callitriche platycarpa, Chara connivens, Cyclostephanos invisitatus, Cyclotella meduanae, Diaporthe oncostoma, Epilobium nutans, Epipactis pontica, Gymnadenia frivaldii, Orchis italica, Pseudomassaria chondrospora, Stephanodiscus lacustris, Stropharia albonitens, Tortella fasciculata, Tortula protobryoides, SE Europe

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 15
Marko S. Sabovljević, Gordana Tomović, Hatıra Taşkın, Boris Assyov, Siniša Škondrić, Ranko Perić, Aneta D. Sabovljević, Snežana Dragićević, Aleksandra Marković, Jelena Knežević, Žan Lobnik Cimerman, Simona Strgulc Krajšek, Vladan Djordjević, Svetlana Krdžić, Ivilin Ilchev, Dimitar Stoykov, Pablo Alvarado, Sanja Z. Djurović, Uroš Buzurović, Mihajlo Stanković, Gordana Kasom, Beata Papp, Jovana Pantović, Sorin Ștefănuț, Miruna-Maria Ștefănuț, Ivana Trbojević, Roman Romanov, Dávid Schmidt and Márton Korda
Pages 361-374
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: saprotrophic fungus Geastrum morganii, Guignardia istriaca and Hypoxylon howeanum, mycorrhizal fungus Amanita friabilis and Suillus americanus, xanthophyte Vaucheria frigida, stonewort Chara hispida, liverwort Calypogeia integristipula and Ricciocarpus natans, moss Campylopus introflexus, Dicranum transsylvanicum, Tortella pseudofragilis and Trematodon ambiguus, fern Ophioglossum vulgatum subsp. vulgatum, monocots Epipactis exilis, Epipactis purpurata and Epipogium aphyllum and dicots Callitriche cophocarpa, Cornus sanguinea subsp. hungarica and Viscum album subsp. austriacum are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.

    KEY WORDS:  new report, Amanita friabilis, Callitriche cophocarpa, Calypogeia integristipula, Campylopus introflexus, Chara hispida, Cornus sanguinea subsp. hungarica, Dicranum transsylvanicum, Epipactis exilis, Epipactis purpurata, Epipogium aphyllum, Geastrum morganii, Guignardia istriaca, Hypoxylon howeanum, Ophioglossum vulgatum subsp. vulgatum, Ricciocarpus natans Suillus americanus, Tortella pseudofragilis, Trematodon ambiguous, Vaucheria frigida, Viscum album subsp. austriacum, SE Europe