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    Volume 46
    Issue 1

Plant histone modifications in response to cold stress
Tae Kyung HYUN
Pages 1-6
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT:  Cold stress is a major environmental factor limiting agricultural expansion and crop yields, and plants have developed diverse molecular mechanisms to cope with a lifetime of exposure to cold stress. Histone modifications play a fundamental role in regulating chromatin dynamics and transcriptional activation, either directly or through protein adaptors termed effectors. Growing evidence indicates that the chromatin remodeling caused by histone modifications, including acetylation, methylation, phosphorylation, and ubiquitination, is required for stress-responsive transcription, stress adaptation, and stress memory in plants. In this mini-review, I have summarized the current knowledge regarding the histone modifications associated with plant responses to cold stress, and discussed the roles of these modifications in improving plant cold tolerance

    KEY WORDS:  Cold acclimation, epigenetic regulations, vernalisation, transcriptional reprogramming

The effect of 24-Epibrassinolide on gene expression related to cell walls under boron deficiency and toxicity in the leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana
Pages 7-15
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    ABSTRACT:  The changing composition of plant cell walls allows for the continuation of the existing structure under normal conditions and also the protection of physical integrity under altering environmental conditions. In this study, the possible effects of the 24-Epibrassinolide (EBL) hormone under boron (B) deficiency and toxicity conditions on the expression of cell wall-related genes [cellulose synthase (CESA), expansin (EXP), xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase (XTH) and pectin methylesterase (PME)] were investigated in the rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. For this purpose, 0 or 3000 μM of boric acid (BA) and/or 1 μM of EBL were applied to the plants which were grown in a hydroponic medium for five and ten weeks. While B-toxicity elevated the mRNA levels of the CESA4 and CESA8 genes in the leaves of the five-week-old plants, B-stress (B-deficiency and -toxicity) caused an increase in the expression of the CESA4, CESA6, and CESA8 genes in the ten-weekold plants. The transcript levels of the EXPA5 gene increased under B-stress in the ten-week-old plants whereas the expression of the EXPA8 gene decreased when compared to the control at two developmental stages. Co-treatment of EBL and Bstress strongly elevated the transcript level of the EXPA5 gene in the ten-week-old plants and the EXPA8 gene at both developmental stages. The EXPA14 and XTH23 genes exhibited distinct expression profiles under B-deficiency and -toxicity in both the five- and ten-week-old plants. The transcript level of the XTH21 gene was upregulated in the leaves of the plants exposed to B-stress. The mRNA level of the PME2 and PME41 genes was generally upregulated in response to B-stress in both the five- and ten-week-old plants. 24-Epibrassinolide alone and in combination with B-stress led to a remarkable increase in the expression of the XTH and PME genes compared to the control. These results demonstrate that cell wall genes generally show a similar pattern of expression at both developmental stages and the EBL hormone induces changes in the expression levels of cell wall-related genes under B-stress.

    KEY WORDS:  Brassinosteroid, cellulose synthase, expansin, gene expression, pectin methylesterase, xyloglucan endotransglucosylase/hydrolase

Phytosociology of Stipa-dominated steppe-like vegetation on the ultramafics of the Central Balkans
Eva KABAŠ, Snežana VUKOJIČIĆ, Svetlana AĆIĆ and Dmitar LAKUŠIĆ
Pages 17-27
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT:  Despite the fact that dry grassland vegetation on ultramafics has been the object of continuous research in previous centuries, there remains a knowledge gap in regard to the initial stages of vegetation on ultramafic substrates. The Stipa-dominated dry grasslands of Serbia and Kosovo representing various initial phases in the overgrowth of ultramafic rocks were the object of the present study. A total of 213 relevés were made in different steppe-like Stipa species-dominated grasslands on ultramafics of Serbia including Kosovo, and were then analysed in the context of Balkan dry grassland vegetation of the Festuco-Brometea class. For cluster analyses, new relevés were analysed in order to characterize them floristically and sintaxonomically. For describing associations, we used the concept of “relative fidelity’’ allowing us to find the optimum occurrence of a species within a group of floristically similar communities. The threshold of the phi value was selected at 0.1 for new associations. Four new associations were distinguished: Stachyo scardicae- Stipetum tirsae ass. nov., Euphorbio glabriflorae-Stipetum pulcherrimae ass. nov., Alysso serbici-Stipetum pulcherrimae ass. nov. and Thymo striati-Stipetum mayerii ass. nov.. Relevés dominated by Stipa novakii were asigned to previously described Stipetum novaki Kabaš et D. Lakušić 2013. The first three new associations were assigned to Potentillion visianii, while the latter was assigned to the Centaureo kosaninii-Bromion fibrosi alliance of the Halacsyetalia sentneri order.

    KEY WORDS:  dry grasslands, Festuco-Brometea, Halacsyetalia sendtneri, relic, syntaxonomy

The epiphytic bryophyte succession of Picea orientalis forests on the Kümbet High Plateau (Giresun-Turkey)
Tülay EZER, Mevlüt ALATAŞ, Nevzat BATAN and Hüseyin ERATA
Pages 29-37
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    ABSTRACT: In this study, the epiphytic bryophyte succession of Picea orientalis forests on the Kümbet High Plateau (Giresun-Turkey) were studied. A total of 21 epiphytic bryophyte species were determined (16 mosses and 5 liverworts). The epiphytic bryophyte communities were sampled in 60 sample plots taken from the trunks of Picea orientalis, each of which was 20 × 20 cm in size. The Index of Ecological Significance (IES), based on a combination of the relative frequency and mean cover of epiphytic bryophytes, was used to evaluate the abundance of bryophyte communities in epiphytic habitats on the tree trunks. In addition, multivariate classification techniques (TWINSPAN and DECORANA) were used to classify the community structures in successional stages. TWINSPAN divided the 60 sample plots into two main groups: a) the lower base communities (LB) and b) the middleupper zone communities (MU). Moreover, the middle-upper zone communities (MU) were divided into two sub-groups associated with the successional gradient (MU1 and MU2). DECORANA classified these communities along the ordination axes 1 and 3 related to the height gradient of Picea orientalis and the moisture (from mesic to xeric) gradient of the epiphytic habitat. While <Exsertotheca crispa, Cynodontium fallax, Lewinskya striata, and Habrodon perpusillus were only found on old spruce trees, Drepanium fastigiatum was only found on young trees and Lophocolea heterophylla was only found on middle-aged trees.

    KEY WORDS:  Bryophytes, epiphytic, succession, TWINSPAN, DECORANA, Turkey

Terpene relationships among some soft and hard pine species
Gordana B. KRSTIĆ, Biljana M. NIKOLIĆ, Marina M. TODOSIJEVIĆ, Zorica S. MITIĆ, Jovana M. STANKOVIĆ JEREMIĆ, Mirjana T. CVETKOVIĆ, Srdjan R. BOJOVIĆ and Petar D. MARIN
Pages 39-48
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT:  In this study we have reported the chemical composition of the essential oils obtained from the needles of twelve Pinus taxa, belonging to the subgenera Pinus (sections Pinus and Trifoliae) and Strobus (sect. Quinquefoliae). Monoterpenes dominated over sesquiterpenes in most of the investigated taxa of both subgenera, except in representatives of the subsection Pinaster, subgenus Pinus. α-Pinene was the most abundant terpene in eight pines, but other dominant terpenes were found in some taxa - trans-caryophyllene, germacrene D, abietadiene and β-pinene. In the subsect. Pinaster, the most dominant compounds varied from species to species. In addition, P. halepensis and P. pinaster had the highest percentage of diterpenes, while P. heldreichii was the richest in germacrene D. In the PCA and cluster analyses, three species from the subsect. Pinaster emerged as the most distant: P. halepensis, P. pinaster, and P. heldreichii. In addition, the possible taxonomic implications of the terpene profile in the analysed Pinus taxa were also discussed.
    KEY WORDS:  pear, extracts, antioxidant activity, antidiabetic activity, cytotoxic activity

Micropropagation and ex situ conservation of three rare and endemic ornamental Dianthus taxa (Caryophyllaceae)
Pages 49-60
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    ABSTRACT: The conservation of numerous plant taxa of spontaneous flora which are endemic, endangered, vulnerable or rare is realized by in situ or ex situ methods. The biotechnology of in vitro cultures is an important part of these programmes. The aim of the study was the in vitro proliferation and rooting reactivity of three rare species of wild origin carnations (Dianthus genus) with limited distribution and conservation priority: the endangered and rare-restricted D. ingoldbyi (a local endemic from some regions of the Balkan peninsula, Turkey and North-East Greece), the Cretan local Greek endemic, range-restricted and endangered D. juniperinus subsp. bauhinorum, and the least concern or near threatened range-restricted Greek endemic of the Cyclades, Peloponnese and Ionian islands D. fruticosus subsp. occidentalis. In all Dianthus taxa, using shoot-tips as explants and NaClO as the sterilizing agent (2%) a 50-90% sterilization rate was reported. In D. fruticosus subsp. occidentalis (2 shoots/ explant 18.78 mm long) a 100% shoot regeneration rate was registered in the presence of the combination of 0.25 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L IBA, and 0.1 mg/L GA3 (5 weeks), whereas D. juniperinus subsp. bauhinorum responded best (100% shoot proliferation, with 3.5 shoots, 22.38 mm long) in the presence of 0.5 mg/L BA + 0.1 mg/L NAA (4 weeks). Dianthus ingoldbyi yielded better performance i.e. 5.5 shoots/ explant 34.18 mm long but with a 28.33% hyperhydricity rate in the initial MS medium enriched with 0.25 mg/L BA, 0.1 mg/L IBA, 0.1 mg/L GA3 as well as in the PGR-free MS medium during the subsequent shoot multiplication stage (100% shoot proliferation, 3.88 shoots 62.09 mm long, absence of hyperhydricity) (5 weeks). Among the three tested auxins (IBA, NAA, IAA), NAA at 0.25 mg/L induced better rooting (100%, 9.75 roots/rooted microshoot 32.47 mm long) in D. juniperinus subsp. bauhinorum (5 weeks), whereas both D. fruticosus subsp. occidentalis (5.48 roots 20.51 mm long) and D. ingoldbyi (6.89 roots 23.93 mm long) showed the best rooting results (100%) on the MS auxin-free medium (4 weeks). After 3-4 weeks, the survival rates of the ex vitro acclimatized plants in the heated greenhouse mist in a peat: perlite (1:1 v/v) substrate were 100%, 90% and 50% for D. ingoldbyi, D. fruticosus subsp. occidentalis, and D. juniperinus subsp. bauhinorum, respectively.

    KEY WORDS:  auxins, cytokinins, in vitro, endangered, wild carnations

Surface sediment diatom assemblages from four alpine lakes in the Zelengora Mountains (Bosnia and Herzegovina): A Pilot Study
Slobodan GNJATO, Biljana NARANCIC, Dermot ANTONIADES, Reinhard PIENITZ, Boris K. BISKABORN, Rajko GNJATO and Radoslav DEKIĆ
Pages 61-70
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    ABSTRACT: This pilot study presents surface sediment diatom assemblages in four alpine lakes in the Zelengora Mountains. The four lakes are distributed across an alpine treeline, spanning temperate mixed forest and treeless alpine tundra zones, thus offering an excellent opportunity to study the interaction of physicochemical properties and biotic communities in different alpine lake settings. A total of 52 taxa from 28 genera were identified, with only one taxon (Staurosirella neopinnata) present in every lake. In the Orlovačko, Donje Bare and Crno lakes, the diatom assemblages were mainly comprised of benthic and tychoplanktonic species, as opposed to the Kotlaničko Lake where the planktonic Lindavia radiosa was the most abundant species. Our results identified water turbidity, macrophytes and pH to be the prevailing environmental factors which influence the diatom assemblage composition in the studied lakes. The results of this study also represent a starting point in establishing biomonitoring programmes for the sustainable management of these alpine aquatic ecosystems in a rapidly changing environment.
    KEY WORDS:  biomonitoring, Bacillariophyceae, lake water hydrochemistry, Balkan Peninsula

Phylogenetic relationships of Origanum taxa (Lamiaceae) from Greece: Initial insights from molecular and morphological data
Pages 71-83
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: The genus Origanum is a well-known culinary, aromatic and medicinal taxon of the Lamiaceae family. Despite the notable progress that has been made in Lamiaceae phylogenetics and in the Nepetoideae subfamily, the genus remains insufficiently investigated concerning its interspecies evolutionary relationships. The present study provides initial insights into the phylogenetic relationships and sectional classification of Greek taxa, based on three nuclear and five chloroplast DNA regions with eight taxa and 68 samples in total. The molecular results showed all (steno) endemic species as monophyletic with high or absolute support. Additionally, O. calcaratum’s scattered distribution between three phytogeographical areas in the Aegean Archipelago is also confirmed molecularly. The molecular results also verify the close affinity of certain sections; thus, sec. Majorana is placed as a sister group of sec. Chilocalyx and sec. Amaracus with sec. Anatolicon. However, based on species sectional classification, the groups from this study differ from the sections previously recognized. Such species belong to sections Amaracus and Anatolicon, where they are either mixed together or are grouped with other sections. Regarding morphological analysis, certain non-vegetative characters are highlighted as important for the delimitation of most Greek taxa, while characters related to the calyx, when combined, are very useful for the delimitation of sections.
    KEY WORDS:  Nepetoideae, molecular phylogeny,morphological phylogeny, botany, Aegean Flora

Prokaryotic expression and solubilisation of Arabidopsis ROOT UVB SENSITIVE 1 from inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli
Xue-Wen HOU, Hong-Yun TONG and Zheng-Hui HE
Pages 85-91
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    ABSTRACT: The RUS (ROOT UVB SENSITIVE 1) proteins characterized by their unique DUF647 domain are widely distributed in eukaryotes. Their functional roles are largely unknown except for the possible involvement of Arabidopsis RUS1 and RUS2 in early seedling development. To investigate the biochemical roles of the RUS proteins, full length and truncated Arabidopsis RUS1 were seamlessly fused with GFP and cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pQE-100 which allows proteins expressed with an N-terminal 6×His tag. Expression of the full length RUS1-GFP could not be detected after adding the inducer IPTG, while a truncated RUS1-GFP was expressed at high levels and formed inclusion bodies in Escherichia coli. The inclusion bodies were dissolved in a denaturing buffer, and then the truncated RUS1-GFP fusion protein in the supernatant was bound to a Ni-NTA slurry. The bound proteins were eluted after the non-specific binding proteins were washed away. The purified truncated proteins were detected as a single clear band of the expected size in SDS-PAGE, and were further confirmed by the Western blot test. Our results suggest that the impossible expression of the full length RUS1 protein in E. coli can be expressed in truncated form, and inclusion bodies can be effectively solubilized.
    KEY WORDS:  Seamless cloning, inclusion body, renaturation, protein purification, Western blot

Chemical composition and chemosystematic evaluation of the fruit and root headspace fractions of selected Heracleum taxa from Southeastern Europe
Ljuboš UŠJAK, Milica DROBAC, Marjan NIKETIĆ and Silvana PETROVIĆ
Pages 93-103
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    ABSTRACT: This work is focused on nine Heracleum taxa (Apiaceae): H. sphondylium, H. sibiricum, H. montanum, H. ternatum, H. pyrenaicum subsp. pollinianum, H. pyrenaicum subsp. orsinii and H. verticillatum, belonging to the H. sphondylium group, and H. orphanidis, all from sect. Heracleum, as well as H. austriacum subsp. siifolium from sect. Wendia. The aim was to isolate the headspace (HS) fractions from 17 fruit samples (collected from all nine Heracleum taxa) and 13 root samples (collected from all eight taxa belonging to sect. Heracleum), to investigate their composition and chemosystematic significance, as well as to compare these results with those previously obtained for the essential oils isolated by hydrodistillation from the same fruit and root samples. The HS fractions were isolated using an automatic static HS sampler and analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. The fruit HS fractions were dominated by octyl acetate and/or α-pinene (the taxa from the sect. Heracleum), or n-octanol (H. austriacum), whereas the root HS fractions mainly contained β-pinene and/or (Z)-β-ocimene (the taxa from the H. sphondylium group), or n-nonane (H. orphanidis). The chemosystematic significance was evaluated using multivariate statistical methods: principal component analysis (PCA), non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and agglomerative hierarchical clustering based on the unweighted pair-group arithmetic average (UPGMA) algorithm. As in the case of previously investigated essential oils, the statistical analysis of the fruit and root HS fractions generally resulted in the grouping of the investigated H. sphondylium group representatives, and within this group, the grouping of morphologically related H. sphondylium and H. montanum and the isolated position of H. verticillatum. The statistical analysis of the root HS fractions resulted in better separation of the taxa (even compared to previous analysis of the essential oils), i.e. isolated positions of H. ternatum and H. pyrenaicum were observed. KEY WORDS:  Apiaceae, GC-FID, GC-MS, PCA, nMDS, UPGMA

Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. (Megasporaceae, Pertusariales, Ascomycota) from Azad Jammu and Kashmir, Pakistan, evidence from morphology and DNA sequencing data
Iram FAYYAZ, Najam ul Sehar AFSHAN, Abdul Rehman NIAZI and Abdul Nasir KHALID
Pages 105-111
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    ABSTRACT: A new species of Megasporaceae, Aspicilia nigromaculata sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Pakistan. A comparative morpho–anatomical study and ITS– LSU-based molecular analyses confirmed its position within the genus Aspicilia. It differs from the other species of the genus by the following set of features: a well–developed, grey to greenish grey frequently black spotted thick thallus, well– developed thicker peripheral and flat to slightly concave areoles, and small conidia 10–15 × 0.5–1 μm. Its positioning in a separate branch in the phylogenetic tree also makes it distinct from the other known species of the genus.
    KEY WORDS:  ITS nrDNA, nrLSU, phylogeny, saxicolous lichens

Boron toxicity impacts on photosystem II photochemical efficiency of sage (Salvia officinalis)
Pages 113-119
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    ABSTRACT: Although boron (B) is an essential element for plants, it becomes toxic in high concentrations. This study was conducted to determine the effects of B toxicity on the photosynthetic performance of sage (Salvia officinalis). Twenty-day old cuttings were exposed to toxic B concentrations (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 mM) for 20 days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were determined and analysed by the JIP test. The toxic B content led to a gradual decrease in the efficiency of electron transport, the quantum yields, the photosynthetic performances, and the driving force in sage, while causing an increase in the K-band, L-band, and specific and phenomenological energy fluxes. Membrane damage and water loss gradually increased in response to the severity of toxicity levels (-4.3 fold and 19.5% at 10 mM B, respectively). The reductions in the amounts of photosynthetic pigment and photosynthetic activity showed that sage was highly affected by B toxicity, and even increased anthocyanin and flavonoid amounts were unable to alleviate this effect. Exposure to increased B concentrations was associated with the amount of B accumulation in the sage leaves. This dramatic B accumulation in the sage leaves, which are used in herbal teas and food flavourings, can pose a threat to human health depending on the characteristics of the soil in which the sage grows. An evaluation of PSII photochemical efficiency may serve to determine the effects of B toxicity in sage.
    KEY WORDS:  chlorophyll fluorescence, fluorescence transient, JIP test, nutrient toxicity, photosynthesis, photosynthetic pigments.

Hieracium micevskii (Asteraceae), a new species from North Macedonia
Pages 121-124
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    ABSTRACT: Hieracium micevskii is described and illustrated as a species new to science from the western part of North Macedonia. Taking into consideration the morphological characteristics, its origin is assumed to be hybrid. The abundance of long rigid simple hairs indicates H. olympicum as one of its possible parental species, while their deeper dentation indicates a representative of Hieracium sect. Pannosa as the second.
    KEY WORDS:  Hieracium olympicum, Hieracium sect. Olympica, Hieracium sect. Pannosa, Compositae, holotype, hybrid origin

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 7
Pages 125-132
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: stonewort Chara intermedia, liverworts Fossombronia wondraczekii and Pseudomoerckia blyttii, mosses Hamatocaulis vernicosus and Hookeria lucens, monocots Gladiolus palustris, Neotinea tridentata, and Orchis militaris and dicots Cardamine serbica, Cardamine waldsteinii, Hieracium kotschyanum and Pilosella petraea are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.
    KEY WORDS:  new report, Cardamine serbica, Cardamine waldsteinii, Chara intermedia, Gladiolus palustris, Fossombronia wondraczekii, Hamatocaulis vernicosus, Hieracium kotschyanum, Hookeria lucens, Neotinea tridentata, Orchis militaris, Pilosella petraea, Pseudomoerckia blyttii, SE Europe

New records and noteworthy data of plants, algae and fungi in SE Europe and adjacent regions, 8
Pages 133-141
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    ABSTRACT: This paper presents new records and noteworthy data on the following taxa in SE Europe and adjacent regions: diatom alga Cylindrotheca gracilis, fungi Laccaria macrocystidiata, liverworts Riccia canaliculata, Riccia cavernosa, and Riccia frostii, mosses Dicranum viride, monocots Arundo donax, Cephalanthera rubra, Epipactis palustris, and Sternbergia colchiciflora and dicots Aconitum anthora and Cephalaria pastricensis are given within SE Europe and adjacent regions.
    KEY WORDS:  new report, Aconitum anthora, Arundo donax, Cephalanthera rubra, Cephalaria pastricensis, Cylindrotheca gracilis, Dicranum viride, Epipactis palustris, Laccaria macrocystidiata, Riccia canaliculata, Riccia cavernosa, Riccia frostii, Sternbergia colchiciflora, SE Europe

Stem anatomical survey of the genera Matricaria and Tripleurospermum (Asteraceae) from Turkey with its taxonomical and ecological implications
Melahat OZCAN and Huseyin INCEER
Pages 143-151
Full reference | Abstract | Full text PDF | Supplementary

    ABSTRACT: A comparative anatomical study of the stems in 32 taxa assigned in the two related genera; Matricaria (4 taxa) and Tripleurospermum (28 taxa, 30 accessions), was carried out in Turkey by using cluster analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) to address generic classification and taxa delimitation. All the studied taxa have the following stem characteristics: one layer of epidermal cells with a sparse distribution of non-glandular trichomes, a cortex composed of interchanging collenchyma and chlorenchyma cells, a number of schizogenous secretory ducts near the bundles, ovate to oblong and open collateral vascular bundles which are arranged in a ring and are variable in size, and parenchymatous pith. The differences among the taxa are mainly the thickness of the xylem in the vascular bundle, the length of the epidermal cells and the pith cell size. The taxonomic and ecological values of the anatomical data are discussed in light of the current framework.
    KEY WORDS:  Compositae, chamomile, mayweed, numerical taxonomy

Validation and typification of Verbascum hybrids (Scrophulariaceae) published by Svante Murbeck and deposited at the Belgrade University Herbarium (BEOU)
Pages 153-157
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    ABSTRACT: New nothospecific names were created for six Verbascum hybrids which were previously described by Murbeck without binomials: Verbascum ×ipecensis (V. baldaccii × V. phlomoides), Verbascum ×krusevacense (V. abietinum × V. phlomoides), Verbascum ×lundense (V. herzogii × V. leucophyllum), Verbascum ×petrovicii (V. heuffelii × V. speciosum), Verbascum ×soskae (V. baldaccii × V. pulverulentum), Verbascum ×soskicii (V. longifolium var. pannosum × V. nicolai).
    KEY WORDS:  BEOU, Murbeck, nothospecies novae, Verbascum

List of reviewers for Botanica Serbica in 2021 — Acknowledgements
Pages 159-160
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