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    Volume 43
    Issue 2


Pages 123-131
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Physiological responses of Xanthoria parietina to longterm copper excess: role of the extracellular secondary metabolite parietin
Ivana BIĽOVÁ, Michal GOGA and Martin BAČKOR
Pages 133-142
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    ABSTRACT:  Xanthoria parietina is a common lichen that is widespread around the world. Tolerance of heavy metal pollution in this lichen is well known. Xanthoria parietina contains the secondary metabolite parietin, which protects the photobiont from high UV- radiation. Secondary metabolites of lichens have been found to form complexes with metal cations. In a long-term experiment (lasting 8 weeks), we tested the resistance of X. parietina with and without the secondary metabolite parietin against two concentrations of Cu (50 µM and 500 µM). Removal of parietin did not affect the measured physiological parameters. However, it caused higher accumulation of intracellular Cu. De novo synthesis of parietin in the lichen thallus after removal of the metabolite was not observed. Physiological parameters (chlorophyll a fluorescence, chlorophyll a integrity, content of soluble proteins, ergosterol levels, TBARS production) were affected by the higher dose of Cu during the long-term experiment. It seems that the secondary metabolite parietin does not protect the lichen against Cu excess.

    KEY WORDS:  parietin, lichens, heavy metals, accumulation, tolerance

Biogeographic traits of the bryophyte flora of Serbia
Pages 143-150
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    ABSTRACT:  The biogeography of bryophytes present in Serbia is analysed for the first time in this paper. Bryophyte spectra in different regions and units within the country are compared with each other, as well as with the Southeast European spectrum. The obtained results show similarities and differences in comparison with Southeast European bryophyte spectra, reveal certain biogeographical peculiarities of Serbia´s bryophytes and indicate regions of the country with an under-recorded bryoflora. The biogeographical characteristics of bryophytes also suggest a strong overlap with local climate types. These results should be taken into consideration when preparing a national strategy for conservation and management of bryophyte diversity.

    KEY WORDS:  distributional element, range types, mosses, liverworts

Morphoanatomical study of Matricaria L. (Asteraceae) in Turkey
Huseyin INCEER and Murat BAL
Pages 151-159
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    ABSTRACT:  In the Turkish flora, the genus Matricaria is present with four taxa, namely M. aurea, M. chamomilla var. chamomilla, M. chamomilla var. recutita and M. matricarioides. This study presents an evaluation of selected diagnostic characters and anatomical traits of the achene (cypsela) of Matricaria in Turkey using univariate analysis (one-way analysis of variance) and multivariate analysis (cluster analysis, principal component analysis) to obtain new information. Three groups are found within the genus Matricaria based on morphoanatomical characteristics. The colour of disc florets, that of ribs on the achenes, the presence or absence of a slime envelope and pericarp thickness are useful for delimitation of Matricaria taxa, and a key to taxa based on these characters together with other diagnostic traits is provided.

    KEY WORDS:  Matricaria, morphometry, achene anatomy, Turkey, taxonomy

Humic acid protects against oxidative damage induced by cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots through water management and the antioxidant defence system
Pages 161-173
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    ABSTRACT: Humic compounds like humic acid (HA) promote ecosystem health by stabilising soil structure and promoting plant development. However, the amount needed is a limiting factor. The use of biostimulants based on HA is an effective way to eliminate oxidative damage caused by heavy metals such as cadmium (Cd) in plants. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of humic acid (HA; 750 and 1500 mg L-1) on growth, the osmotic potential, the antioxidant system, radical content and lipid peroxidation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) roots treated alone or in combination with Cd stress (100 and 200 mM). Cadmium-treated wheat roots showed a reduction in growth (RGR) and the osmotic potential (YP) and an increase in proline content (Pro). Although 100-mM Cd stress induced the activities of catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation in roots exposed to stress was not prevented. The membrane of roots showed stress-dependent lipid peroxidation (TBARS content). Application of HA in combination with stress alleviated RGR and YP by promoting water intake. Humic acid reduced levels of H2O2 and TBARS through activation of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and CAT. Application of HA under stress also induced enzymes and non-enzymatic substances included in the ascorbate-glutathione cycle such as APX, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione (GSH), in addition to which it increased GSH/GSSG ratios. These results indicate that HA alleviated the negative effects of Cd-induced oxidative damage in wheat roots through regulation of growth, osmotic adjustment, radical accumulation and the action of antioxidant systems.

    KEY WORDS:  Ascorbate-glutathione cycle, humic acid, lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress, Triticum aestivum

Congeneric comparison of allelopathic and autotoxic effects of four Solidago species
Pages 175-186
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    ABSTRACT:  The invasive species Solidago canadensis and S. gigantea are known for having the potential to inhibit their neighbours through allelopathy. However, there are no data on allelopathic properties of the natural interspecific hybrid S. ×niederederi and no investigations comparing the allelopathic potential of native and invasive Solidago species. We therefore studied the allelopathic effect of aqueous leaf extracts of S. virgaurea, S. canadensis, S. gigantea and S. ×niederederi on two congeneric pairs of species (Festuca and Solidago) occurring naturally in communities with the tested Solidago species. Germination and seedling growth of Festuca rubra were inhibited by all Solidago extracts more than were those characteristics of F. pratensis, while S. canadensis was more sensitive to its own and congeneric extracts than was S. ×niederederi. The effect of leaf type (green or withered) on Festuca seedling growth was target species-specific, while seed germination was more suppressed by green leaf extracts. The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that invasive plant species have stronger persistent allelopathic effects on native plants compared to their native congeners.
    KEY WORDS:  allelopathy, germination, inhibition, invasive plants, Solidago

Fresh fruits and jam of Sorbus domestica L. and Sorbus intermedia (Ehrh.) Pers.: phenolic profiles, antioxidant action and antimicrobial activity
Pages 187-196
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    ABSTRACT: A detailed examination of the phenolic profile, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant and antimicrobial capacities of extracts and jams of the fruits of two traditionally used Sorbus species, viz., S. domestica and S. intermedia, was carried out in the present study. Use of the LC-MS/MS technique revealed the presence and content of 44 phenolics, the most dominant compounds being amentoflavone in S. domestica and chlorogenic acid in S. intermedia extracts. Jam of both species showed the highest content of Ascorbic acid. In comparison with BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and PG (propyl gallate) antioxidant standards, both Sorbus species exhibited moderate antioxidant action. Some extracts of S. domestica and S. intermedia inhibited the growth of two clinically relevant bacterial strains. The presented results support the belief that Sorbus fruits are food with health-promoting properties.

    KEY WORDS:  Sorbus, phenolics, Ascorbic acid, antioxidant action, antimicrobial activity

Allium panormitisi (Amaryllidaceae), a new autumn-flowering species from Symi Island, SE Aegean, Greece
Christos J GALANOS and Dimitrios TZANOUDAKIS
Pages 197-203
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    ABSTRACT: Allium panormitisi, from the island of Symi (SE Aegean, Greece), is described as a species new to science. It is an autumn-flowering species of Allium section Codonoprasum (Amaryllidaceae) and is classified as endangered (EN) according to IUCN criteria. Its morphology, karyology and conservation status are presented and discussed, in addition to its taxonomic relationships to other autumnal species of A. sect. Codonoprasum distributed in the E Mediterranean area.
    KEY WORDS:  Codonoprasum, chromosome number, Dodecanisos, karyology, taxonomy, conservation