?? Botanica Serbica - Volume 43 Issue 1
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    Volume 43
    Issue 1

Records of lichenicolous fungi new for Turkey and Asia
Kenan YAZICI, Javier ETAYO, Ali ASLAN & Dilara KARAHAN
Pages 3-8
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    ABSTRACT:  Three lichenicolous fungi occcuring on Tephromela atra and Lecidea fuscoatra– Rhymbocarpus fuscoatrae, Sclerococcum tephromelarum and Skyttea tephromelarum, collected from the Tunceli and Bingol provinces of Turkey – are reported as new to Turkey and Asia, following a recent lichenological survey in those provinces. Short descriptions are provided, together with geographic distributions, hosts, and comparisons with similar taxa.

    KEY WORDS:  Ascomycota, Bingol, biodiversity, lichenicolous fungi, Tunceli

Bryophyte extracts suppress growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Botrytis cinerea
Pages 9-12
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    ABSTRACT:  In this study, the extracts of three selected bryophyte species are shown to have inhibitory effects on grey mould disease (Botrytis cinerea). Methanol extracts of one leafy liverwort (Porella platyphylla) and two mosses, one aquatic (Cinclidotus fontinaloides) and one terrestrial (Anomodon viticulosus), were applied in vitro to Botrytis cinerea, after which tests showed suppression of fungal development.

    KEY WORDS:  grey mould disease, biofungicide, mosses, liverwort

Karyological and morphological variation within Petrosimonia brachiata Bunge in Bulgaria
Pages 13-21
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    ABSTRACT:  We studied karyological and morphological variability of the only representative of the genus Petrosimonia (Amaranthaceae) in Bulgaria and evaluated the current state of its populations in the country. The results indicated that Bulgarian populations of Petrosimonia brachiata have a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 16. In the population from the Pomorie Lake, the karyotype consists of six pairs of metacentric and two pairs of sub-metacentric chromosomes. In the population from the Atanasovsko Lake, satellites were observed on one pair of sub-metacentric chromosomes. Statistical analysis demonstrated that the main source of phenotype variation in the species is within the populations. Vegetative traits are more variable than generative ones. No significant variability was found in the studied quantitative characteristics or pollen morphology. Given the biological type of the species (annual) and its limited distribution in Bulgaria, the status of the two populations of P. brachiata cannot be regarded as stable, and the danger of a potential threat to them in the future is a possibility not to be excluded.

    KEY WORDS:  Amaranthaceae, karyotype, chromosome number, morphology, chorology

Petasites kablikianus (Asteraceae) in the Slovak Carpathians: distribution, chromosome number and genome size
Pages 23-30
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    ABSTRACT: The paper treats the distribution and ecological characteristics of the butterbur species Petasites kablikianus in the Slovak Carpathians (Central Europe). Study of herbarium specimens, review of published sources and results of field research show its wide distribution in northern and central Slovakia, mainly in wet biotopes such as gravel riverbeds and rocky banks of mountain streams. The majority of populations occur from the submontane to montane level (mainly at elevations of 600-1200 m a.s.l.) with the altitudinal maximum at ca. 1850 m a.s.l. Chromosome number analysis showed 2n = 60. The nuclear DNA content measured in leaves was 2C = 5.96 ±0.17 pg, or 5828 Mbp. Characters used for determination are also discussed. A distribution map is attached.

    KEY WORDS:  Petasites kablikianus, nuclear DNA content, karyology, chorology, Slovakia

Fatty acids of oil and antioxidant capacity of phenolics from fruits of 11 Cardueae (Carduoideae, Asteraceae) taxa from northeast Anatolia (Turkey)
Aynur KURT, Melahat OZCAN, Nesrin COLAK, Yesim OZOGUL, Robert GLEW, Fatih OZOGUL & Faik AHMET AYAZ
Pages 31-45
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    ABSTRACT:  Members of the tribe Cardueae have become a subject of major interest due to problems of their taxonomy and phylogeny, their possession of biologically active metabolites and their use in traditional medicine. The present study was conducted on 11 taxa of the tribe Cardueae collected from natural habitats in Turkey. In it we investigated the oil content of cypselae, fatty acid composition of the oil and the antioxidant capacity of phenolics from the cypselae. The results showed that the total oil content ranged from 1.45 to 9.28%. The main fatty acid was linoleic acid (C18:2n6; 44.36–70.49%), followed by oleic acid (C18:1n9; 11.41–23.71%), a situation which varied significantly among the taxa, as did the concentrations of different sums of fatty acids (PUFAs, 45.21–78.82%; SFAs, 6.53–14.06%; MUFAs, 12.21–41.40%). The total content of phenolic compounds (TPC; 428.17–752.14 mg/100 g of dry weight) and total flavonoid content (TF; 132.19–336.41 mg/100 g of dry weight) were in strong positive correlation with antioxidant capacity (range; micromol/g of dry weight) determined using DPPH (65.94–147.9), FRAP (32.32– 86.42), CUPRAC (41.04–92.91) and ORAC (22.11–51.24) assays. The data demonstrated that a higher content of phenolic compounds resulted in a higher antioxidant capacity, while a lower content resulted in a low antioxidant capacity. Relative proportions and quantities of fatty acids can be used as additional biochemical markers in taxonomy of the tribe. The present findings suggest that consumption of cypselae of those species that are rich in phenolic compounds and fatty acids may potentially be beneficial to human health by preventing chronic diseases caused by oxidative stress.
    KEY WORDS:  chemotaxonomy, cypsela, Arctium, Cardueae, Carthamus, Cirsium, Echinops

Evaluation of bioactivities and phenolic composition of extracts of Salvia officinalis L. (Lamiaceae) collected in Montenegro
Pages 47-58
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    ABSTRACT: Sage (Salvia officinalis) is the best-known species of the genus Salvia, due to its medicinal and flavouring properties. This research was conducted on samples of S. officinalis collected from Potoci (SOP) in the continental part of Montenegro and from Valdanos (SOV) and Luštica (SOL) in the country´s coastal region. Extracts prepared using 96% ethanol, 50% ethanol and hot distilled water were examined for phenolic composition, as well as for their antioxidant, enzyme-inhibiting and cytotoxic activities. The HPLC-DAD method was employed for quantitative-qualitative analysis of phenolic compounds in extracts, which confirmed the presence of rosmarinic and caffeic acids and luteolin-7-O-glucoside. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents, antioxidant activity, and inhibition of acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase were measured spectrophotometrically. In the applied antioxidant tests (DPPH, FRAP and ß-carotene/linoleic acid tests) and tests of inhibition of the enzymes acetylcholinesterase and tyrosinase, the SOP extracts showed stronger antioxidant and enzyme-inhibiting activities compared to SOV and SOL, while the most efficient solvent was 50% ethanol. The highest cytotoxic activity in the MTT test was recorded for 96% ethanol extracts, especially in the case of the SOL sample, against the A375 cell line. All of the tested bioactivities were more strongly correlated with total phenolic content than with flavonoid content. Differences in the tested bioactivities of extracts obtained from plants collected at ecologically different localities and with different extraction solvents could be explained by variations in total phenolic and flavonoid contents.

    KEY WORDS:  sage, phenolics, antioxidant activity, antineurodegenerative activity, cytotoxic activity

Cold stress in soybean (Glycine max L.) roots: exogenous gallic acid promotes water status and increases antioxidant activities
Pages 59-71
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    ABSTRACT: Gallic acid (GLA; 3,4,5- trihydroxybenzoic acid) is a strong antioxidant in plants. In order to clarify the effects of GLA as a pro-oxidant or an antioxidant on cells under stress conditions, soybean (Glycine max) was grown under normal conditions or in the presence of cold stress (5 and 10°C) in the absence or presence of gallic acid (GLA; 1 and 2 mM) for 72 h. The soybean roots exposed to stress exhibited a significant decline in growth (RGR), water content (RWC), osmotic potential (??) and proline content (Pro). However, GLA treatment under stress significantly improved these parameters and alleviated the stress–generated damage. Stress decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, but GLA effectively mitigated the adverse effects on enzyme activity. After stress treatment, only catalase (CAT) was induced in soybean roots, although it was not sufficient to prevent toxic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) accumulation. Thus, the levels of lipid peroxidation (TBARS content) markedly increased. However, GLA contributed to detoxification of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation by enhancing activities of CAT and peroxidase (POX). In addition to these enzymes, SOD activity was able to scavenge superoxide anion radicals, as evidenced by decline in TBARS content. However, monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR), total ascorbate (tAsA) and glutathione (GSH) showed a decline of content in roots treated with GLA (both concentrations) plus stress. Our results suggest a protective role of GLA, which may strengthen plant tolerance by ensuring efficient water use and enhancing antioxidant systems. In soybean roots, GLA successfully alleviated the toxicity of cold stress by modulating the activities of SOD, CAT and POX rather than enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle.
    KEY WORDS:  Antioxidant system, cold stress, gallic acid, Glycine max, reactive oxygen species

Heavy metal tolerance of Pontechium maculatum (Boraginaceae) from several ultramafic localities in Serbia
Pages 73-83
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    ABSTRACT:  Pontechium maculatum, a facultative metallophyte, was collected from four ultramafic localities in Serbia and analysed in terms of micro- and macroelement accumulation. The aim of the study was to reveal trace element profiles and differences in uptake and translocation of heavy metals in populations growing under heavy metal stress. The concentrations of major and trace elements in soil samples (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd) and in plant tissues (Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Zn, Cu, Co, Cd) are presented. The results of our analysis indicate that P. maculatum efficiently absorbs Zn and Cr, while for most of the other elements accumulation levels fit in the range of values obtained for several other species from ultramafic localities on the Balkan Peninsula.

    KEY WORDS:  Boraginaceae, Echium russicum, trace metal, Balkan Peninsula

Bioaccumulation of heavy metals in common reed (Phragmites australis) growing spontaneously on highly contaminated mine tailing ponds in Serbia and potential use of this species in phytoremediation
Pages 85-95
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    ABSTRACT:  Heavy metal contamination of aquatic ecosystems directly threatens the health, production and biodiversity of aquatic and surrounding terrestrial ecosystems, and it represents a serious global problem. Metal extraction during ore processing produces large amounts of wastes that remain in tailings at the mining site. Fine waste particles represent a long-term source of potentially toxic metals that can be released into the ground and surface water as a result of their progressive chemical weathering. Aquatic macrophythes have a major role in absorption and accumulation of heavy metals and thereby in natural water purification. The presence of naturally growing plants on mine tailing ponds indicates their tolerance of heavy metal pollution and suggests a possible role for them in phytoremediation. In the present study, we analysed the concentrations of heavy metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pb, Cd, Co, Cu) in Phragmites australis plants growing spontaneously in shallow water of several mine tailing ponds. The aims of the study were to define chemical properties of the mine spoils, determine the concentrations of heavy metals in different plant organs and assess the phytoremediation potential of common reed. The investigated sediments were notably rich in both total and available forms of Fe, Pb, Zn and Cu, with their upper concentrations close to phytotoxic levels. The greatest amounts of almost all of the investigated metals in plants from all three mine tailing ponds were found in the roots, with their concentrations positively correlated with the amounts of their available forms in the corresponding sediment. The far higher metal concentrations in the roots in comparison with other plant organs clearly indicate that the metals were strongly sequestrated within root cortical tissues and were not transferred across the endodermis. Taken altogether, the presence of the greatest amounts of metals in roots, high bioaccumulation factor and low translocation factor show that P. australis is an excluder plant species with a good phytostabilisation potential. As such, it might be efficiently used in rhizofiltration of wastewaters.
    KEY WORDS:  toxic metals, common reed, phytostabilisation, rhizofiltration

Rediscovery of Chara canescens Loiseleur in Serbia
Pages 97-102
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    ABSTRACT:  Chara canescens is the only charophyte performing parthenogenetic reproduction. Although most recently found populations consist solely of parthenogenetically reproducing females, bisexual populations exist as well, making the species a unique example of the sympatric occurrence of both reproductive modes. In Serbia, C. canescens was found only once for certain, near Prokuplje in 2005. The purpose of the present study is to report a reliable new finding of C. canescens in Serbia, in a stable parthenogenetic female population. Sampling was conducted on 7 July 2018 from the Plava Banja pond near the city of Kikinda. Results of water analyses revealed high concentrations of almost all measured parameters, but especially high levels of salinity and alkalinity markers. Very high concentrations of sulphates and chlorides in the Plava Banja pond pointed to extreme ion anomalies. On the basis of the concentration of nutrients in it, the Plava Banja pond can be characterised as a eutrophic water body. Chara specimens collected from this pond were identified as C. canescens, and only females in the reproductive phase were detected. The environmental features of this habitat are typical in relation to preferences of the given species for light and salinity (ion concentration). This record is of great importance because C. canescens has been declared to be probably extinct in the wild in Serbia.
    KEY WORDS:  charophyte, parthenogenesis, Kikinda, Plava Banja pond

Notes on Bolboschoenus planiculmis, a species new to the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Semir MASLO, Šemso ŠARIC & Ðordije MILANOVIC
Pages 103-107
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    ABSTRACT:  This paper presents a survey of Bolboschoenus species found in Bosnia and Herzegovina and includes an identification key, distribution data and maps of localities for each species in Bosnia and Herzegovina based on a revision of herbarium specimens from SARA, private collections of the authors, literature data and field observations. The following species are native to Bosnia and Herzegovina: B. glaucus, B. maritimus and B. planiculmis. In this paper, B. planiculmis is reported as a species new to the flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was discovered at two localities in August of 2015 and 2016 during field work along the banks of the river Bosna (East Central Bosnia). The paper presents a short morphological description and photographs, as well as a summary of distribution of the species.
    KEY WORDS:  Bolboschoenus, Balkan Peninsula, Cyperaceae, distribution, taxonomy

Crepis setosa subsp. topaliana (Asteraceae): a new record for the flora of Turkey
Pages 109-112
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    ABSTRACT:  In this paper, Crepis setosa subsp. topaliana (Asteraceae), which is known as endemic to Greece, is recorded as a new taxon for the flora of Turkey. It grows in scrub and in cultivated and grassy roadside places in the northwest and western parts of Turkey. An extended description of C. setosa subsp. topaliana is presented here, together with an identification key. The conservation status of this subspecies and its chromosome number are indicated.
    KEY WORDS:  Crepis, endemic, new record, taxonomy, Turkey

Pleurospermum austriacum (L.) Hoffm. (Apiaceae), a new species in the flora of the Republic of Macedonia
Pages 113-115
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    ABSTRACT:  Pleurospermum austriacum (Apiaceae) is reported from the Bistrica River basin in the Šar Mountains as a new native species in the flora of the Republic of Macedonia. This is also the first report of the genus Pleurospermum in the country´s flora.
    KEY WORDS:  Pleurospermum, first report, native species, Šar Mountains, Balkan Peninsula

In memoriam: Prof. Dr. Radiša Jancic (1951 – 2018)
Pages 117-120
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List of reviewers for Botanica Serbica in 2018 — Acknowledgements
Pages 121-122
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