??? Botanica Serbica - Volume 42 Issue 2
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    Volume 42
    Issue 2

Editor's Note - Botanica Serbica: Remembering the beginnings
Stevanovic B
Pages I-IV
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Epiphytic bryophyte vegetation of the Samanl? Mountains (Sakarya-Kocaeli-Yalova-Bursa) in Northwest Turkey
Can Gözcü M, Uyar G, Alatas M, Ezer T & Ören M
Pages 157-171
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    ABSTRACT:  In the present study, epiphytic bryophyte vegetation of the Samanl? Mountains (northwest Turkey) was investigated on the basis of 191 relevés taken from the trunks of trees by the Braun- Blanquet method between 2015 and 2016. Nine epiphytic bryophyte associations and three subassociations were determined as a result of this investigation. Among them, two associations and two subassociations, viz., Neckero - Anomodontetum viticulosi, Neckero - Anomodontetum viticulosi - anomodontetosum viticulosi, Syntrichietum laevipilae, and Syntrichietum laevipilae - orthotrichetosum lyellii, were recorded for the first time in Turkey. In addition, epiphytic bryophyte vegetation was classified and ordinated using multivariate analysis techniques such as two-way indicator species analysis and detrended correspondence analysis. Besides that, the life form and life strategies of the species within syntaxa were analysed. As a result, it is established that while perennial stayers with a high sexual reproductive effort were dominant within the epiphytic bryophyte vegetation comparatively, the most abundant life form was the mat rough type.

    KEY WORDS:  association, bryophyte, epiphytic vegetation, life forms, life strategies, Samanl? Mountains, Turkey

Checklist of Turkish bryophyte vegetation
Alatas M.
Pages 173-179
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    ABSTRACT:  A list of the known bryophyte syntaxa in Turkey compiled according to the methodology of Braun-Blanquet is presented in this study. Altogether, 41 associations and 19 subassociations belonging to 19 alliances, 12 orders, and eight bryosociological classes have been determined to date in Turkey. Moreover, six communities and 17 units of unknown phytosociological status have also been reported. The bryosociological syntaxa are grouped on the basis of their aquatic, terrestrial, or epiphytic character and given together with their localities and synonyms.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophytes, bryosociology, checklist, Turkey, vegetation

Effects of zinc and copper on development and survival of the moss Atrichum undulatum in controlled conditions
Sabovljevic A, Vujicic M, Stankovic J & Sabovljevic M
Pages 181-184
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    ABSTRACT:  We studied the effects of zinc and copper on gametophyte development and survival of the moss Atrichum undulatum in axenic and controlled conditions. Various salts of these two essential elements were applied in different ways in order to document effects dependent ion binding of zinc and copper to this moss. It can be concluded that zinc is less toxic than copper in higher concentrations. Survival is better and the recovery rate faster after exposure to zinc. Both metals are more harmful to the moss when applied in an aqueous solution.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophytes, essential elements, growth, harmfulness, Atrichum undulatum

Reproductive ecology of Allmania nodiflora, Celosia argentea var. margaritacea, and Digera muricata (Amaranthaceae)
Aluri JSR & Chappidi PR
Pages 185-198
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    ABSTRACT: Allmania nodiflora, Celosia argentea var. margaritacea, and Digera muricata are annual herbaceous weeds which reproduce exclusively by seed. The plants appear in June, while flowering time is August-February in agricultural fields and August-October/November in other habitats. The synflorescence is an elongated erect spike in A. nodiflora and C. argentea, while it is a long pedunculate spicate raceme in D. muricata. The flowers anthese acropetally in A. nodiflora and C. argentea var. margaritacea, while there is no such clear-cut anthesis pattern in D. muricata. Allmania nodiflora is functionally hermaphroditic. Digera muricata is partially hermaphroditic because the central flower in three-flowered groups is fertile, while the lateral flowers are sterile. Celosia argentea var. margaritacea is functionally gynodioecious. In A. nodiflora and D. muricata, the flowers facilitate autonomous selfing due to synchrony in maturation of the male and female sex. In C. argentea var. margaritacea also, the flowers facilitate autonomous selfing, but it is precluded by strong protandry. All three species are anemophilous and entomophilous. Allmania nodiflora and D. muricata produce one-seeded fruits, while C. argentea var. margaritacea produces multi-seeded fruits. Allmania nodiflora and C. argentea var. margaritacea dehisce by means of a circumscissile lid and disperse seeds, while D. muricata produces indehiscent fruits. All three species are anemochorous, but A. nodiflora is also myrmecochorous.

    KEY WORDS:  anemochory, anemophily, entomophily, gynodioecy, hermaphroditism, hydrochory, myrmecochory

Modelling the abundance of an endangered medicinal species, Phellodendron amurense: generalised linear model vs. generalised additive model
Song N & Zhang J
Pages 199-208
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    ABSTRACT:  Study of relations between medicinal plant species and the environment is important in plant ecology and for conservation of medicinal plants. The generalised linear model and generalised additive model were used to describe the species response to environmental gradients exhibited by a community of Phellodendron amurense (an endangered medicinal plant species) in the Xiaolongmen Forest Park, Beijing, China. Data of species abundance and environmental variables were obtained from 25 plots measuring 10 m × 10 m. The results showed that both the generalised linear model and the generalised additive model were effective in describing species-environment relations. The Gaussian model was more suitable in modelling the species response to environmental gradients. Phellodendron amurense was absolutely the most dominant tree species in the community. All dominant species in it showed a harmonious relationship. The distribution and abundance of Ph. amurense were significantly correlated with the elevation, slope position, aspect, litter thickness, etc. These must be considered for conservation of the studied species and communit
    KEY WORDS:  species response, generalised linear model, generalised additive model, Phellodendron amurense, conservation

Biological activities of Cretan Salvia pomifera extracts
Duletic-Lauševic SN, Alimpic Aradski AZ, Kolarevic SM, Vukovic-Gacic BS, Oalde MM & Marin PD
Pages 209-216
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    ABSTRACT: The polyphenolic content and biological activities of dichloromethane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts of Cretan Salvia pomifera L. (Lamiaceae) were analysed. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest content of total phenolics and total flavonoids. The ethanol extract exhibited the highest activity in the DPPH and FRAP assays, while the dichloromethane extract had the highest activity in the ABTS test. The ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity in the ß-carotene-linoleic acid system. The antioxidant activity of extracts was positively correlated with the total content of phenolics. Extracts demonstrated weak antibacterial activity. The ethyl acetate extract had the highest acethylcholinesterase inhibition at 50 µg/ mL, while the ethanol and dichloromethane extracts showed the highest activity of tyrosinase inhibition at 25 µg/mL. In view of the significance of antioxidants in prevention and treatment of neurological diseases, the noticeable antioxidant and anti-neurodegenerative effects of the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts recorded in this study make further research on S. pomifera seem promising.

    KEY WORDS:  antibacterial activity, anti-neurodegenerative activity, antioxidant activity, extracts, Salvia pomifera

Chemical characterisation and antibacterial activity of the essential oil of wild Angelica seeds
Acimovic M, Varga A, Cvetkovic M, Stankovic J & Cabarkapa I
Pages 217-221
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to clarify the chemical composition of essential oil from seeds of Angelica (Angelica sylvestris) plants growing wild in Serbia. In the essential oil, a total of 27 compounds were detected, among which 22 compounds were identified (comprising 97.9% of all compounds), while five were unidentified (comprising 2.1%). The main components were limonene (66.6%) and a-pinene (19.0%), followed by camphene (1.9%), a-phellandrene (1.6%), bornyl acetate (1.6%), and trans-caryophyllene (1.0%), while all other compounds were present in amounts of less than 1.0%. The antibacterial effect of the essential oil of wild Angelica seeds was tested against two pathogenic bacteria that cause food poisoning, , viz., Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. According to the obtained results, S. aureus was more sensitive to A. sylvestris seed oil than E. coli. The minimal inhibitory concentrations were 28.40 µL/mL and 56.81 µL/mL, respectively, confirming a good antibacterial activity potential of the essential oil against E. coli and S. aureus, and indicating possibilities for its application in the food and pharmaceutical industries.

    KEY WORDS:  Angelica sylvestris L., seeds, essential oil, chemical composition, antibacterial activity

Bioactive extracts of Gentiana asclepiadea: antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antibiofilm activity
Stefanovic O, Licina B, Vasic S, Radojevic I & Comic Lj
Pages 223-229
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    ABSTRACT:  Extracts of the aerial parts and roots of the wild-growing medicinal plant Gentiana asclepiadea were analysed for their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activity with quantification of the total phenolic and total flavonoid content. Antimicrobial activity was tested against pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, yeasts, and moulds using the microdilution method. The strongest antibacterial activity was detected on Bacillus species, where minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of from 0.16 mg/mL to 5 mg/mL were obtained, while antifungal activity was low to moderate, with MICs between 1.25 and 20 mg/mL. In the crystal violet assay, the extracts inhibit 50% biofilm formation in the concentration range of from 2.12 to 37.04 mg/mL. Staphylococcus aureus, S. aureus ATCC 25923, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 biofilms were the most sensitive to the presence of extracts. The extracts rich in phenolic compounds showed good DPPH-scavenging activity, with EC50 values between 181.3 and 614.3 µg/mL for extracts of aerial parts and from 426.67 to >1000 µg/mL for root extracts. Even though G. asclepiadea has long been traditionally used, its biological activity is still insufficiently explored, so the obtained results are significant for contributing new knowledge about the plant’s medicinal properties.

    KEY WORDS:  Gentiana asclepiadea, extracts, antimicrobial agents, antioxidants, biofilm

Anatomical analysis and phytochemical screening of Frangula rupestris (Scop.) Schur (Rhamnaceae)
Arsenijevic J, Drobac M, Slavkovska V, Kovacevic N & Lakušic B
Pages 231-239

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    ABSTRACT:  Frangula rupestris and F. alnus are the only two species of the genus Frangula in the flora of the Balkan Peninsula. Frangula alnus is well-known for anthranoid content, and its stem bark and fruits are widely used as laxatives. Data on anatomy, plant metabolites, and potential use of F. rupestris are scarce. In this work we analysed anatomy of the stem and leaves and performed phytochemical screening of the bark and leaves of F. rupestris. Specific anatomical characteristics of the stem include the presence of large mucilage cavities in the bark and pith, as well as numerous parenchyma cells containing solitary or cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. The majority of leaf epidermal cells are filled with mucilage. In the main leaf vein there is parenchyma with numerous mucilage cavities and solitary or cluster crystals of calcium oxalate. The levels of flavonoids, total phenolics, and tannins in bark and leaves of plants from two localities were determined by spectrophotometric methods, and the results were compared with those obtained for bark of F. alnus. Bark and leaves of F. rupestris contained 2.68-3.03% and 2.22-3.77% total phenolics, 1.70-2.10% and 0.57-1.54% tannins, and 0.12-0.36% and 0.57-0.99% flavonoids, respectively. The conducted HPLC and LC-MS analyses of hydromethanol extracts of bark and leaves of F. rupestris revealed the presence of flavonols. The dominant compound in all extracts was hyperoside and its content, determined by HPLC, ranged from 30.40 to 82.03 mg/g. Swelling indices determined for 0.5 g of plant material of F. rupestris bark and leaves (5.8-11.4 and 5.8-13.8) were higher than that of the bark of F. alnus (4.4) and greater than those of the mucilaginous drugs Althaeae folium and Althaeae radix (4.7-4.8). The high swelling indices of F. rupestris bark and (especially) leaves suggest their potential use as bulk-forming laxatives. In addition, differences in the content of metabolites were observed in plants from different localities.

    KEY WORDS:  Frangula rupestris, stem, bark, leaves, anatomy, metabolites

Micromorphology and fatty acid composition of the cypselae of Xeranthemum cylindraceum Sm. (Asteraceae, Cardueae)
Gavrilovic M, de Oliveira AFM, Barbosa MO, Garcia-Jacas N, Susanna A, Marin PD & Janackovic P
Pages 241-250

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    ABSTRACT:  The paper presents micromorphology of the cypselae of Xeranthemum cylindraceum as revealed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and their fatty acid composition as determined on a gas chromatograph coupled with a flame ionisation detector (GC-FID). The cypselae are densely hairy, straight, ribbed, narrowly obconical to obovoid. Micromorphological features are as follows: striate-rugose surface; adaxial detachment area; asymmetrical carpopodium; presence of nonglandular, shortly forked twin hairs; and absence of a pericarp crown. The pappus is paleaceous, homomorphic, uniseriate, persistent, and with several wide, scarious, subulate, and apically pinnulate bristles of variable length. Out of 12 fatty acids detected, nine (88.57%) are identified, ranging from palmitoleic (C16:1) to behenic (C22:0) acids. Oleic acid is dominant (55.24%). Unsaturated fatty acids are predominant in the oil (75.02%). The composition of fatty acids in cypselae of the given species is here reported for the first time. The taxonomic value of the analysed characters is briefly discussed.

    KEY WORDS:  Xeranthemum, Cardueae, micromorphology, fatty acids

Sorbus × semipinnata Hedlund (Rosaceae), a taxon newly recorded for the dendroflora of Serbia
Duraki Š, Prodanovic D, Stanojevic M & Krivošej Z
Pages 251-254

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    ABSTRACT:  This paper presents the first record of a taxon here newly recorded in the dendroflora of Serbia, namely Sorbus × semipinnata Hedlund (Rosaceae), as well as some notes on morphological properties of material from the Serbian site.

    KEY WORDS:  Sorbus × semipinnata, Kosovo, Serbia, new record

Rubus laciniatus Willd. (Rosaceae), an introduced species new in the flora of Serbia and the Balkans
Krivošej Z, Prodanovic D, Preljevic N & Veljkovic B
Pages 255-258

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    ABSTRACT:  Rubus laciniatus has been found as a species new for the flora of Serbia during floristic investigation in the Ibar river valley. It was found on serpentine terrains near the town of Raška (SW Serbia). This is the single known locality of the given species on the Balkan Peninsula. Data on morphology, distribution, and habitat preferences of the species are provided, and the possible pathways of its introduction in Serbia are assessed.

    KEY WORDS:  Rubus laciniatus, blackberry, new record, Ibar river valley

Pedicularis hoermanniana and Petasites kablikianus, new species in the flora of the Republic of Macedonia
Teofilovski A
Pages 259-263

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    ABSTRACT:  This paper reports the first finding of two native species in the flora of the Republic of Macedonia, namely Pedicularis hoermanniana (Orobanchaceae) and Petasites kablikianus (Asteraceae). Both species were found on Mt. Jablanica in the upper part of the Belicka River valley (SW Macedonia), while P. kablikianus was also found in the upper part of the Pena River valley in the Šar Mountains (NW Macedonia).

    KEY WORDS:  Pedicularis hoermanniana, Petasites kablikianus, first records, Mt. Jablanica, Šar Mountains, Macedonia

The PSRC, a pollen and spore reference collection maintained by the Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences
Hristova V.
Pages 265-269

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    ABSTRACT:  A pollen and spore reference collection can be a valuable instrument in forensic palynology, prehistoric studies, aerobiology, and other areas of research. Referred to hereafter as the PSRC, the collection of pollen and spore samples maintained by the Institute of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Research of the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (BAS) has been developed over a period of 40 years. Currently, the PSRC includes 7270 slides of pollen/spores from plants distributed in Bulgaria and species common in subtropical and tropical regions. The present article treats the role of samples stored in the PSRC as reference material in palynological research on Palaeogene, Neogene, and Quaternary fossil assemblages.

    KEY WORDS:  Bulgaria, collection, palynology, pollen, spore

Influence of winter savory (Satureja montana L.) aqueous extract on antioxidant properties of Jimson weed (Datura stramonium L.)
Šucur J, Prvulovic D, Manojlovic A, Anackov G & Malencic Ð
Pages 271-275

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    ABSTRACT:  Due to an increase in the number of herbicide-resistant weeds and environmental concerns about the use of synthetic herbicides, a great effort is being made in designing alternative weed management strategies. The present study was carried out in order to examine the impact of winter savory (Satureja montana) aqueous extract in natural weed management. We evaluated the effect of two concentrations (0.1 and 0.2%) of S. montana aqueous extract on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and the lipid peroxidation process in Jimson weed (Datura stramonium) seedlings. Our results showed that S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in roots of Jimson weed seedlings 72 hours after the treatment.

    KEY WORDS:  allelopathy, Datura stramonium, Satureja montana

Influence of winter savory (Satureja montana) aqueous extract on mortality of lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica)
Gvozdenac S, Šucur J, Manojlovic A, Prvulovic D & Malencic Ð
Pages 277-281

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    ABSTRACT:  Losses of grain quality and quantity as a result of insect activity during storage impose the need for proper pest control. One of the major pests of stored wheat is the lesser grain borer (LGB), Rhyzopertha dominica. This pest is usually controlled with insecticides. However, there is recently a growing interest in the use of plant-based products in pest management. Plants are a rich source of active compounds and for centuries have been used for the control of harmful insects. This study was carried out in order to evaluate the effects of Satureja montana aqueous extract on LGB adults in contact and contact-digestive tests. The mortality of LGB adults during contact exposure to S. montana extract was low, regardless of the concentration (16.7–33.3% after 24 h and 30.0–33.3% after 48 h). After 24 h of contact-digestive exposure, the highest mortality was caused by 2% S. montana extract (23.3%), while after 48 h the level of mortality increased in all treatments with S. montana extract (0.5, 1, and 2%) and was 28.4, 28.4, and 41.7%, respectively. After 72 h of contact-digestive exposure, it ranged from 57.5 to 63.5%, while in the control it remained the same (2.7%). After 7 days of such exposure, it was 91.6–98.4%, depending on the concentration. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that S. montana aqueous extract caused mortality of LGB adults, the level of this mortality depending on concentration of the applied extract and duration of the experiment.

    KEY WORDS:  insecticidal effect, Rhyzopertha dominica, Satureja montana

In memoriam. Prof. Dr. Branimir Petkovic (1942-2017)
Marin PD & Duletic – Lauševic S
Pages 283-284

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In memoriam. Prof. Dr. Mirjana Neškovic (1925-2017)
Sabovljevic A
Pages 285-286

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