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    Volume 38

Prof. Dr. Branka Stevanovic, on the occasion of her 70th birthday
Pages 1-24

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    ABSTRACT:  I am much honored to be the Gueste ditor of this Special issue of Botanica Serbica that is dedicated to Professor Branka Stevanovic for her 70th anniversary. I have known Branka since 1974 and our scientific collaboration, which began in 2003, developed especially around the resurrection plant Ramonda genus from the Balkan and Pyrenean Peninsulas. We have had one common international project, several publications and congress participations in this field of study. In this Special issue, many of Branka’s friends, collaborators and colleagues from different European countries participate with their scientific contributions from recent data. So Branka: may your feet continue to tread where your mind leads over hills and steppes so your hands may continue their rich communication.

Contribution to plant genome size knowledge: first assessments in five genera? and 30 species of angiosperms from western Balkans?
Pages 25-34

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    ABSTRACT:  The first assessments, done by flow cytometry, of nuclear DNA amount for five genera and 30 species of angiosperms (three monocots, 27 eudicots) from the western Balkan Peninsula, including eight taxa with some degree of endemism to this area, are presented here. These data complement the substantial existing information on plant genome size in this region, now accounting for 670 species and subspecies studied for this character.

    KEY WORDS:  2C-value, the Balkans, flow cytometry, nuclear DNA amount, vascular plants.

Mitigation of plant drought stress in a changing climate
Pages 35-42

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    ABSTRACT:  This review paper addresses possible adaptation strategies to mitigate drought effects on plants that will increase under climate change. The focus will be on two approaches: use of water-saving deficit irrigation methods (partial root-zone drying-PRD and regulated deficit irrigation-RDI) and breeding of genotypes with increased drought resistance. Both approaches are based on knowledge of plant stress physiology.

    KEY WORDS:  drought, deficit irrigation, resistance

Is it possible to identify Colchicum neapolitanum s.l. and C. autumnale s.l. in vegetative stage?? Biometry and flow cytometry approaches
Pages 43-56

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    ABSTRACT:  It is difficult to distinguish hysteranthous Colchicum species growing in Dalmatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, even the two most common taxa (C. autumnale and C. neapolitanum subsp. visianii). There are no clear vegetative characteristics suitable for good identification of these species. The nuclear DNA values, however, reveal differences between these two species and also among other taxa. Genome size was studied for the first time in: C. hungaricum Janka (2C = 5.38 ± 0.3 pg); two Dalmatian endemics C. neapolitanum (Ten.) Ten. subsp. kochii (Parl.) Fridl. (2C = 10.9 ± 0.3 pg) and C. neapolitanum (Ten.) Ten. subsp. visianii (Parl.) Fridl. (2C = 10.41 ± 0.32 pg) and for Italian C. neapolitanum (Ten.) Ten. subsp. neapolitanum (2C = 10.0 ± 0.1 pg) endemic to Basilicata – Campania. Genome size of C. autumnale L. from Bosnia and Herzegovina (2C = 6.17 ± 0.31 pg) does not differ from other west European populations. Based on this important character and also on morphological studies, we propose taxonomic revision of some taxa. As genome sizes of the two generally confused species C. neapolitanum subsp. visianii and C. autumnale are very different, flow cytometry is useful for identification, conservation inventories and management concerning these two taxa.

    KEY WORDS:  Balkan flora, biometry, Colchicum, flow cytometry, genome size

New species for the vascular flora of Republic of Macedonia and their distribution in the Balkan Peninsula
Pages 57-68

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    ABSTRACT: During several botanical expeditions in the Republic of Macedonia (Mt Jablanica and Mt Baba: Pelister), a new genus Amphoricarpos Vis. and five new species for the flora of Macedonia were found: Euphorbia montenegrina (Bald.) K. Maly´ ex Rohlena, Prangos ferulacea (L.) Lindl., Tanacetum larvatum (Griseb. ex Pant) Hayek, Amphoricarpos autariatus Blec?ic´ & E. Mayer and Allium phthioticum Boiss. & Heldr. Most of them are mountainous Balkan (sub)endemics with less than 30 populations and with the center of distribution in southeastern Dinaric Alps. In this paper we discuss the phytogeographical importance of these five plants in the light of their new, more accurate distribution ranges in the Balkan Peninsula. In addition, new floristic records for the same species in the neighbouring Balkan countries (Albania, Montenegro and Serbia) are also presented.

    KEY WORDS:  vascular flora, new records, distribution ranges, Republic of Macedonia, Balkan Peninsula

The aquatic resurrection plant Chamaegigas intrepidus – adaptation to multiple abiotic stresses and habitat isolation
Pages 69-80

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    ABSTRACT:  Chamaegigas intrepidus is a tiny poikilohydrous member of the Linderniaceae growing endemically in ephemeral rock pools on granite outcrops in Central Namibia. Habitat conditions are characterised by (1) frequent and fast desiccation and rehydration during the rainy summer season, (2) complete dehydration during the dry winter season lasting up to 11 months, (3) intensive solar irradiation and high temperatures during the dry season, (4) diurnal oscillations of pH in the pool water up to 6 units, (5) extreme nutrient deficiencies, especially nitrogen. Anatomical, biochemical and physiological adaptations to this complex of extreme environmental conditions are discussed such as contractive xylem, accumulation of carbohydrates, dehydrins and abscisic acid during desiccation, and the role of amino acids, ammonium, urea and urease for nitrogen nutrition. Furthermore, Chamaegigas populations on single inselbergs are genetically isolated, whereas gene flow between sub-populations from different pools on one inselberg is rather high. This pattern of gene flow is discussed in the context of the breeding system of Ch. intrepidus.

    KEY WORDS:  poikilohydrous cormophytes, limnology, desiccation, gene flow, Namibia

Chasmophytic communities of endemic and relict species Ramonda nathaliae Panc?ic´ & Petrovic´ on ophiolithic substrate in Republic of Macedonia?
Pages 81-90

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    ABSTRACT: Chasmophytic communities of endemic and relict species Ramonda nathaliae on ophiolithic (serpentine) substrate are very rare phenomenon in the whole range of the species considering that it grows mainly on limestone. The paper presents the two communities of R. nathaliae on serpentine habitats: Asplenio-Ramondaetum nathaliae previously described near the village Radus?a and new community Scorzonero-Ramondaetum nathaliae from the gorge of the river Pc?inja. Floristic composition, chorological and life form spectra of these two communities are compared. The syntaxonomical position of these communities in relation to the alliance of chasmophytic vegetation on limestone Ramondion nathaliae and alliance of serpentine rocky grasslands of alliance Centaureo - Bromion fibrosi is discussed. Due to significant floristic differences between communities of R. nathaliae on serpentine and those growing on limestone, a new sub-alliance Ramondion nathaliae serpentinicum is proposed.

    KEY WORDS:  Ramonda nathaliae, serpentine bedrock, chasmophytic communities, Balkans

Morphological differences between the flowers of Ramonda serbica, R. nathaliae and their hybrid
Pages 91-98

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    ABSTRACT:  Two species of the genus Ramonda from the Balkan Peninsula, R. nathaliae and R. serbica live together forming sympatric populations in only two localities in SE Serbia. In these populations natural hybridization between these two species has been detected employing chromosome number, genome size as well as pollen and seed analysis. It is very difficult to distinguish hybrid individuals from parents directly in the field on the basis of their morphological characters. Investigation of floral traits by traditional morphometry was carried out. The results showed the presence of clear morphological differences between R. nathaliae and R. serbica as well as pronounced similarity of hybrids with R. serbica. Our results showed that the most informative flower characters for distinction of hybrids from R. serbica and R. nathaliae are the colour of anthers and the angle formed by lines connecting the petal base and points of the maximal petal width. The complex cytogenetic structure of these populations detected in previous studies suggests a complicated and unpredictable character of inheritence in hybrid individuals.

    KEY WORDS:  Ramonda, Gesneriaceae, Balkan, sympatry, hybridization, morphometry.

Plant growth regulators in bryophytes
Pages 99-108

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    ABSTRACT:  Although classified as higher plants, and the second biggest group of terrestrial plants, bryophytes remain less studied and even unknown in many biological processes. Here, an overview on developmental processes in bryophytes known until now is presented. Special emphasis on growth regulators and their influence in bryophytes is given.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophytes, mosses, liverworts, plant growth regulators, development

Morpho-anatomical differentiation of the species Teucrium montanum (Lamiaceae) in the Central Balkan Peninsula
Pages 109-120

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    ABSTRACT:  Inter-population differentiation of the species Teucrium montanum was analyzed on the basis of morpho-anatomical variability of its thirteen populations distributed between 60 and 1750 m above sea level in the Mediterranean and Continental region of the central Balkan Peninsula.
    Descriptive statistics were performed for each of 28 continuous quantitative characters related to leaf and stem morphology and anatomy. The hypothesis of morphological separation of populations was tested using canonical discriminant analysis (CDA), and discriminant function analysis was used to estimate the contribution of individual characters to overall discrimination. The discrimination between groups in CDA was predominantly based on characteristics of the external structure on the leaf surface, while the internal structure of the leaf and stem did not show such significant differences between the 13 populations.
    The morpho-anatomical analysis of plants from these populations has confirmed that the species T. montanum belongs to evergreen microphyllic xeromorphic semi-bushes. Statistical analysis revealed four group of populations with significant morphological differentiation. One part of the observed anatomical variability could be explained as an adaptive response to different geographical and recent environmental factors, and another part seemed to be caused by genetic or evolutionary factors.

    KEY WORDS:  Teucrium montanum, evergreen shrub, morphology, anatomy, indumentums, differentiation.

Overview of the stoneworts (Charales) of Serbia with the estimation of the threat status
Pages 121-130

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    ABSTRACT:  The study provides insights into stoneworts of Serbia (1851-2013). For each taxon, the synonym(s), distribution, threat factors and the IUCN threat category is given. In Serbia, 23 species are present of ca. 400 known worldwide.

    KEY WORDS:  stonewort, Charales, Serbia, distribution, threat status

GIS analysis of spatial distribution of invasive tree species in the protected natural area of Mt. Avala (Serbia)
Pages 131-138

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    ABSTRACT:  In this paper we present the results of studies of distribution of seven invasive tree species (Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo, Fraxinus pennsylvanica s.l., Ailanthus altissima, Gleditsia triacanthos, Rhus typhina, Amorpha fruticosa) in the protected area “Avala” in Serbia. Field studies were conducted between May and July 2012. Distribution data for invasive species were collected using the GPS positioning with a GPS receiver eTrex Vista C (Garmin). Software Manifold System 5.50 Professional Edition was used for spatial data analysis and for creation of vector maps of the MGRS network with 100 × 100 m squares. We registered a total of 1019 individual occurrence data, which were distributed to 245 MGRS squares of 100 × 100 m. A detailed distribution map, resulting from the analysis of distribution in relation to the zones of protection and habitat types, is presented for each invasive species.

    KEY WORDS:  invasive alien trees, GIS, protected area, Robinia pseudoacacia, Acer negundo

Proteases and their endogenous inhibitors in the plant response to abiotic stress
Pages 139-158

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    ABSTRACT:  Controlled protein degradation and activation of proenzymes is required for the growth and development of plants and for them to survive abiotic and biotic stresses. Uncontrolled proteolysis, that is often induced by stress, is however deleterious for plants. Proteases are essential for carrying out and regulating protein breakdown, functions that are regulated by specific endogenous protein inhibitors. General information on proteases and their inhibitors is reviewed, followed by descriptions of some of the increasing numbers of reports on their involvement in the plant response to abiotic stress. Particular emphasis is laid on drought, which is the most frequently studied abiotic stress. It will be shown that levels of proteases are increasingly seen to be associated with tolerance and sensitivity to abiotic stress, and a more complete picture is steadily emerging. The main hindrance to further understanding is the lack of knowledge of the natural substrates ofproteases. Further definition of their role in plant stress will lead, not only to an understanding of tolerance to stresses such as drought, but also provide an important basis for crop improvement.

    KEY WORDS:  protease, protease inhibitor, drought, salinity, cold, stress

Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two Satureja species from Mt. Biokovo
Pages 159-166

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    ABSTRACT:  Hydrodistilled volatile oils, as well as the extracts from waste water after hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of Satureja montana and Satureja cuneifolia, growing wild at Mt. Biokovo (Croatia), were analyzed by GC-MS. Sixty compounds were identified in four samples. The major constituents of essential oil obtained from the plant material of S. montana were carvacrol (63.4%) and thymol (19.4%), while thymoquinone (38.7%) was the major component of extracts from waste water after hydrodistillation. The most abundant compounds in essential oil of S. cuneifolia were carvacrol (17.7%) and spathulenol (13.2%), respectively. The extract from waste water after hydrodistillation of this plant species was rich in (E)-coniferyl alcohol (18.1%). Antioxidant activity was tested using two spectrophotometric methods. Isolated extracts revealed activity in reducing stable radical and transition metals, comparable to thymol, carvacrol, and thymoquinone, which were used as positive probes.

    KEY WORDS:  Satureja montana, Satureja cuneifolia, GC-MS, antioxidant activity.

Chorological characterization and distribution of the Balkan endemic? vascular flora in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pages 167-184

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    ABSTRACT:  298 endemic taxa at the species and subspecies rank have been found in the territory of Bosnia and Herzegovina (B&H). Each taxon has been classified into its corresponding chorological group, subgroup and floristic element. The basic chorological structure of endemic Balkan flora in B&H is composed of five main groups: South-European Mountainous (SEM) with 112 taxa, 38% of the total endemic Balkan flora in B&H; Mediterranean - Submediterranean (MED-SUBMED), 77 taxa (26%); Central-European Mountainous (CEM) with 69 taxa (23%); Central-European (CE) with 34 taxa (11%); and Pontic (PONT) with six taxa (2%). Within SEM and CEM groups, the most abundant were Dinaric and Dinaric-Balkan elements, in the MED-SUBMED group it was Adriatic Submediterranean, while in the CE group there were Illyrian and Illyrian-Balkan floristic elements. The distribution of each taxon in B&H was mapped in the network of MGRS squares, with a precision level of 10 km. The richness of Balkan endemic flora in B&H was presented as the number of taxa, at the species and subspecies ranks in each MGRS square 10 x10 km. In the same way, the distribution of endemic taxa of each basic chorological groups was represented. It has been confirmed that high mountains of northern Herzegovina (Prenj, C?vrsnica, C?abulja) are richest in endemics (125 taxa), followed by mountains Bjelas?nica, Treskavica, Ivan, together with the canyon of the Rakitnica river (109 taxa), and mountains at the border with Montenegro, Maglic´ and Volujak with the Sutjeska river canyon (99 taxa). The richest endemic flora was recorded on the following particular mountains: Prenj (99), C?vrsnica (78), Orjen (74), Velez? (70), Treskavica (63), Maglic´ (58), Dinara (52), etc.

    KEY WORDS:  Bosnia and Herzegovina, Balkan endemic flora, chorological structure of flora, distribution of floristic elements.

A simple and efficient DNA isolation method for Ornithogalum L. species (Hyacinthaceae, Asparagales)
Pages 185-190

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    ABSTRACT:  We report an efficient, simple and cost-effective protocol for the isolation of genomic DNA from Ornithogalum species. Our modification of the standard CTAB protocol includes two polyphenol adsorbents (insoluble PVPP and activated charcoal), high NaCl concentrations (4 M) for removing polysaccharides, and addition of phenol to remove proteins and other contaminants. DNA yield obtained with our protocol was 223 and 312 µg DNA g-1 of dry leaf tissue. The absorbance ratio 260/280 nm was 1.879 (O. refractum) and 1.753 (O. sibthorpii), and the absorbance ratio 260/230 nm was 1.779 (O. refractum) and 1.545 (O. sibthorpii), revealing lack of contamination. PCR amplifications of one nuclear marker (26S rDNA) indicated that this DNA isolation protocol may be used for Ornithogalum plants containing many interfering compounds for further analyses in population genetics and phylogeographic studies.

    KEY WORDS:  Ornithogalum, DNA isolation, CTAB, phenol, PVPP, PCR.

Open Access in Botany
Pages 191-195

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    ABSTRACT:  Changes in communication processes in science as a result of the advent of electronic publishing and the internet are described. Open access to information is a key factor for the advance of science, but the existing copyright legislation and the monopolist position of commercial publishers influence the possible use of existing research results. The history of the Open Access movement and the “green” , “gold” and hybrid ways of achieving open access are briefly described. Important resurces for botany: e-journals, e-books, digitized collections and databases available in open access are recommended.

    KEY WORDS:  Open Access, botany, e-publications