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Institute of Botany and Botanical Garden "Jevremovac"
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    Volume 37
    Issue 2

Grassland bryophyte assemblages of Fruška Gora Mountain (Serbia)
Pages 91-95

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    ABSTRACT:  The bryophyte ecology of grasslands in Fruška Gora Mountain were studied. The phytosociological survey took place in September of 2011. In total 18 bryophyte species were recorded in grasslands of Fruška Gora. Since the grasslands are subject to frequent disturbance, the bryophyte species recorded do not have strong ecological relationships among themself, and are rather in the stage of competition and establishing bryophyte communities. Factors like short time of development, frequent habitat disturbance, harsh environment and chance establishment define the presence of 5 bryophyte assemblages in different ecological situations in the grasslands of Fruška Gora.

    KEY WORDS:  bryophytes, ecology, grasslands, Fruška Gora, Vojvodina, Serbia

Variations of essential oil characteristics of Clinopodium pulegium (Lamiaceae) depending on phenological stage
Pages 97-104

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    ABSTRACT:  The variability of essential oil characteristics in different phenological stages of Clinopodium pulegium from its natural habitat (Svrljiški Timok gorge, Serbia) and from cultivated plants (Niš, Serbia) was determined.
    The essential oils were obtained from aerial parts of the plants by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC-MS. These are the first data on the essential oil characteristics of plants of the population from the Svrljiški Timok gorge.
    Samples originating from both natural and cultivated populations were characterized by high amounts of essential oils in all stages of development (0.8% - 1.4%). Twenty-one compounds were identified, representing 95.3-99.6% of the total oils.
    Differences in the essential oil composition were more quantitative than qualitative. The quality of the essential oil was stable and did not vary with differences in environmental conditions. Dominance of the main components was modified by phenological stage. Pulegone was dominant in the vegetative (76.1% wild population, 62.7% cultivated population) and the flowering (49.5%, 64.6%) stages, while menthone (48.5%, 65.3%) displaced pulegone (34.7%, 18.4%) at the fruiting stage.
    Cultivated plants in the vegetative and flowering stages can be considered a significant source of pulegone, and in the fruiting stage a significant source of menthone. Careful selection of the developmental stage of the plant is a potential tool which could be employed to obtain the preferred chemical composition of C. pulegium for commercial use

    KEY WORDS:  Clinopodium pulegium, essential oil, pulegone, menthone, phenological stage

Reynoutria sachalinensis:a new invasive species to the flora of Serbia and its distribution in SE Europe
Pages 105-112

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    ABSTRACT:  During an extensive field mapping of Reynoutria taxa that was carried out in Serbia and Montenegro in the period 2006–2012, an interesting specimen was collected in the vicinity of the Special Nature Reserve and Ramsar site “Carska bara” (Vojvodina, Serbia). The recorded plant was identified as giant knotweed Reynoutria sachalinensis (F. Schmidt) Nakai, and it is the first certain record of this invasive species for Serbia. The species covered an area of 1748 m˛ on the bank of the canal connected to the river Begej, forming six separate compact stands on the edge of poplar-willow forest, wet grasslands and near agricultural fields, just 3 km from the northern border of Ramsar site “Carska bara“. This finding indicates a range extension of R. sachalinensisin the Balkan Peninsula. All distribution data of Reynoutria sachalinensis in Serbia and SE Europe are presented and critically analyzed.

    KEY WORDS:  Invasive species, first record, range extension, Reynoutria sachalinensis, Serbia, Balkan Peninsula

Sesleria serbica(Poaceae), a neglected species of the Balkan Peninsula
Pages 113-120

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    ABSTRACT:  Sesleria serbica is a neglected taxon traditionally wrongly synonymised with S. rigida. Our multifaceted study confirmed its specific status. Herewith we comprehensively describe its morpho-anatomical and ecological features.It is an obligate serpentinophyte, and a protected species in Serbia.Regarding its distribution, S. serbicais a Balkan endemic species (local endemic of the eastern part of the Illyrian province). Nomenclatural and taxonomical notes are also provided, as well as the national conservation status of this species.

    KEY WORDS:  Sesleria serbica, Poaceae, neglected species, morpho-anatomy, ecology, chorology

Histoanatomical study on the vegetative organs of Tradescantia spathacea(Commelinaceae)
Pages 121-126

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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents a detailed histoanatomical description of the vegetative organs (root, stem and leaf), measurements of the leaf epidermal cells and stomata, and microphotographs of an ornamental plant Tradescantia spathacea Sw. The roots had a typical primary monocot structure. The stems had a primary structure, the stele comprising two concentric rings of closed collateral vascular bundles. The leaves were heterogeneous, bifacial and hypostomatic, with brachyparatetracytic stomata. However, the upper epidermal cells were larger (186-245 µm long and 112-156 µm wide) than those of the lower epidermis (104-178 µm long and 82-116 µm wide). In addition, the average stomatal length was 57 µm ± 2.54, stomatal index - 16.43 and stomata density - 35.82 stomates/mm 2 .

    KEY WORDS:  histoanatomical study, leaf, root, stomata, stem, Tradescantia spathacea

Variations in essential oil yields and compositions of Salvia officinalis(Lamiaceae) at different developmental stages
Pages 127-140

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    ABSTRACT:  Variations in the yield and composition of essential oil of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) in various stages of development were analyzed in two individuals (= genotypes) of different geographic origin. Both plants have been successfully grown ten years under identical environmental conditions in a private garden in Belgrade. The amount and composition of the oils were analyzed during one growing season starting from the young to old overwintered leaves. The results of the cluster analysis showed that leaf age and origin of the plants has a significant impact on the composition of the essential oils. All oil samples formed two main clades. The first clade are oils collected from young leaves from April to June and belong to a-humulene type. The second clade includes oil obtained mainly of old leaves, which were collected from August to June, and belonging to the camphor and thujone type. In the second clade samples originating from Ucka are completely separated from samples originating from Belgrade.
    Also, based on these analyzes showed that the same individual (the same genotype) during one growing season significantly change the chemical composition of the essential oils. Thus, it is possible to distinguish three different “phenological types of essential oils”: young leaves (“yl-oils”), early old leaves (“early-ol-oils”) and a late old leaves type (“late-ol-oils”). Analysis of the seasonal changes in the composition of the essential oils of Dalmatian sage is shown that different components have different dynamics and different directions of change in the concentration during the season.

    KEY WORDS:  Salvia officinalis, essential oil, camphor, thujone, a-humulene, developmental stage

Notes on some rare and interesting bryophytes of Slovenia
Pages 141-146

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    ABSTRACT: Four interesting bryophyte species, namely three mosses Syntrichia papillosa, Buxbaumia viridis, Rhodobryum ontariense and a liverwort Lunularia cruciata considered to be rare or under threat in Slovenia were recorded recently in new localities. Here, we report the current distribution in Slovenia as well as potential threats

    KEY WORDS:  bryophyte, flora, mosses, liverwort, rare, Slovenia

Additions to the cytology of Saxifraga(Saxifragaceae) from the Western Himalayas, India
Pages 147-153

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    ABSTRACT:  We present a cytological study of species of the genus Saxifraga (Saxifragaceae) by analysing 8 accessions covering 5 species from the Western Himalayas. New intraspecific cytotypes in S. filicaulis Wall. ex Ser. (n = 8) and S. pallida Wall. ex Ser. (n=8) are reported. Saxifraga brunonis Wall. ex Ser. (n = 8) is reported for the first time from India. The occurrence of B-chromosomes in S. parnassifolia D. Don (2n=16+0–1B) has been found for the first time. Chromosome number of S. pallidaWall. ex Ser. (n=8) is different from the previous report. In the course of meiosis S. brunonis and S. parnassifolia show abnormality, such as cytomixis, chromatin stickiness, laggards and chromatin bridges. Abnormal microsporogenesis results in heterogeneous-sized pollen grains and reduced pollen fertility.

    KEY WORDS:  cytomixis, meiotic abnormalities, Saxifraga, Western Himalayas.

Effect of temperature and media supplements on slow growth conservation of medicinal plant Spilanthes acmella
Pages 155-160

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    ABSTRACT:  Spilanthes acmella(L.) Murray is a major source of spilanthol, an alkamide exhibiting various biological and pharmacological activities. In vitro slow growth was attempted by culturing in vitro nodal explants on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of osmotic agents mannitol and sorbitol and ABA (abscisic acid) as well as on 1/2MS followed by storage at 15±2 and 26±2°C for 2, 4, 6 and 8 months without any subculture. Storage conditions were evaluated by percent survival, number and length of shoots and number of leaves. Post storage revival of cultures after every conservation period was evaluated by re-growth on MS media supplemented with 0.5mg/l BAP at 26±2°C.
    Slow growth treatments significantly improved survival with maximum percent survival on MS+2% mannitol at 15±2°C at the end of 8 months. Of the two temperatures, 15±2°C gave a significant reduction in growth. Cultures stored at 26±2°C did not survive more than 5 months. Among different treatments, 2% mannitol followed by 2% sorbitol proved effective in slowing growth of the cultures in terms of shoot number and length. Half MS salts and addition of ABA to the media did not result in slowing down growth. Moreover, shoot number, length and leaf number decreased with increase in the storage duration. Re-growth with maximum percent survival was observed in plants stored on MS+2% mannitol at 15±2°C. However, higher concentrations of osmotic agents proved deleterious for survival as well as re-growth of the plants

    KEY WORDS:  Spilanthes, slow growth, conservation, osmotic agents, temperature, storage

The effect of temperature and light (PAR) on the induction of Chla fluorescence in situ. 2. Diurnal changes in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) and red currant (Ribes spp.)
Pages 161-166

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    ABSTRACT:  The phenomenon of a midday decrease in quantum and all other efficiencies of photosynthesis has been acknowledged. Quantum efficiency of PSII in nettle is known to be lower at midday than in the morning or evening. On other hand, the parameters of induction of Chla fluorescence in stinging nettle (Urtica dioica L.) during the daytime were shown to depend on temperature alone. An increase in temperature also slowed down processes in reaction centres (RCs) and on the acceptor side of PSII, which showed its effect on electron transport in PSII and overall photosynthesis. A similar situation was found for red currant (Ribes spp.). The temperature effect was considered to be transient thermal inhibition of photosynthesis caused by diurnal changes in temperature.

    KEY WORDS:  Spilanthes, slow growth, conservation, osmotic agents, temperature, storage

On the distribution of Goniolimon tataricum (Plumbaginaceae) in Serbia
Pages 167-172

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    ABSTRACT:  A chorological investigation on the distribution of the genus Goniolimon Boiss. in Serbia was carried out. Based on collected material, it was determined that only G. tataricum (L.) Boiss. can be found in Serbia, which resolves the taxonomical and chorological confusion arose from literature sources. Therefore, the name G. serbicum Vis. is treated as a synonyme of G. tataricumfor the first time. Distribution of the species G. tataricum in Serbia was mapped at 10 × 10 km UTM squares. The results of ecological analyses were also provided

    KEY WORDS:  Goniolimon, distribution, ecology, Serbia

Novelties for vascular flora of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Pages 173-181

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    ABSTRACT:  In this paper six new species for flora of Bosnia and Hercegovina are presented: Homogyne sylvestris Cass, Gagea spathacea(Hayne) Salisb., Leucojum vernum L., Carex disticha Huds., Carex alba Scop. and Carex michelii Host. For each species the locality, habitat characteristics, distribution in BiH and estimated threatened status according to IUCN criteria and categories are given. These records contributed to knowledge of the distribution ranges of those species in Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Balkan Peninsula

    KEY WORDS:  Floristic novelties,distribution, threatened status, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Dr. Rajna Jovanović
(1926 – 2012)
In memoriam

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