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    Volume 37
    Issue 1

Leaf anatomy of Carex humilis(Cyperaceae) from Central and South Eastern Europe
Pages 3-11

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    ABSTRACT:  A detailed description of the total variability of leaf anatomical characters in different populations of the taxon Carex humilis Leysser from Austria, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Montenegro and Albania was made. Analyses were performed on the cross-section of 253 leaves collected from 18 populations. Statistical analyses were carried out for 33 quantitative characters related to the leaf anatomy. To identify the trends in anatomical differentiation, descriptive statistics, correlative variability and variations in regard to the geographical gradients, as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA) have been done.

    KEY WORDS:  Carex humilis, C & SE Europe, leaf anatomy

Are there arbuscular mycorrhizal associations in carnivorous plants Drosera burmanii and D. indica?
Pages 13-19

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    ABSTRACT:  Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) associations have not been described within the roots of carnivorous plants Drosera indica and D. burmanii which form a part of the natural vegetation of south India. Fungal structures characteristic of an Arum-type AM colonization were present in both species despite their low level of colonization (<50%). Root colonization by AM fungi and spore density in the rhizosphere differed with plant species which were significantly more in D. burmanii. Edaphic factors such as soil pH and organic carbon content positively influenced the fungal development whilst soil moisture and phosphorus content had a negative effect. Five taxa of AM fungi belonging to the genera Acaulospora, Funneliformis, Glomus and Racocetra were extracted from the rhizosphere of D. indica as against three taxa belonging to the genera Funneliformis and Glomus from D. burmanii.

    KEY WORDS:  AM association, carnivorous plant, Drosera burmanii, Drosera indica

Reproduction in the Sphacelariales: sex is a rare occurrence
Pages 21-30

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    ABSTRACT:  This review examines the reproduction and life-history of the Sphacelariales, providing a synthesis of much of the key literature and examining whether an alternation of generations is common within the order. The evidence suggests that sexual reproduction is a rare occurrence for most species, which may be a result of meiosis failing to occur in the unilocular sporangium, onset of sexuality failing to occur in gametophytes or because the necessary environmental conditions are absent. One or all scenarios, or another, may apply depending on the species but, in most instances, there is insufficient information to determine this. Asexual reproduction is common in the order and may be by vegetative means, production of asexual spores or by parthenogenesis or ephebogenesis. Temperature and daylength are known to affect reproduction in the order and the suggested critical daylength for production of propagules in Sphacelaria rigidula Kützing has been narrowed to fall between 8 and 9.5 h.

    KEY WORDS:  Sphacelariales, life-history, reproduction, alternation of generations, Sp

The Bryophyte Flora of Ancient Cities of Aydin Province (Turkey)
Pages 31-38

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    ABSTRACT:  The bryophyte flora of ancient cities in Aydin province has been studied. Out of 450 bryophyte samples, a total of 130 moss taxa (belonging to 18 families and 47 genera) and 16 liverwort taxa (belonging to 10 families and 13 genera) were identified. Five of those moss taxa, namely Fissidens fontanus, Crossidium aberrans , Didymodon bistratosus, Didymodon icmadophylus and Orthotrichum shawii, are identified from the study area as the second records for the taxa in Turkey.

    KEY WORDS:  Bryophyte, Flora, Ancient Cities, Ayd?n, Turkey.

Mires of Serbia - distribution characteristics
Pages 39-48

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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this paper is to provide the first complete insight into the distribution of mires in Serbia and to give an assessment of their size. For these reasons, a Serbian Mire Database and accompanied GIS Serbian mire distribution map have been developed. We estimated the distribution and total area of mires in Serbia since the last published records in 1979. Compared with the current estimation of about 3000 ha with histosols (peaty soils) in Serbia, mires were found to persist on about 1250 ha or 0.014% of the total Serbian territory, from analysing 155 mires and mire complexes. Nineteen of them are recorded and presented for the first time. Some notes on the minimum, maximum and average peat thickness as well as pH range are also discussed. A short overview on mire-related terminology and classification problems in Serbia with some suggested solutions is presented. This study also refers to the classification syste m for mires established by Jovan Cvijic in 1896, practically forgotten in Serbia and almost unknown outside Serbia. Finally, all relevant literature on Serbian mires is given.

    KEY WORDS:  mire, peatland, peat, distribution, Serbia

Histochemical, micromorphology and ultrastructural investigation in glandular trichomes of Micromeria thymifolia
Pages 49-53

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    ABSTRACT:  Histochemical, micromorphology, ultrastructural and confocal analyses of the trichomes of Micromeria thymifolia (Scop.) Fritsch, were carried out using light microscopy, confocal laser scanning electron microscopy, scanning electron and transmission fluorescent microscopy. Three types of glandular trichomes - peltate, capitate and digitiform and non-glandular trichomes are described on the abaxial and adaxial leaf surface. Ultrastructural analyses showed the presence of mitochondria, plastids with lipid globules and proliferations of the granular endoplasmatic reticulum in secretory phases of the heads of glandular trichomes. The results of histochemical tests showed a positive reaction to polysaccharides, lipids and to some secondary compounds such as terpenes and phenols in different types of glandular trichomes. A strong red autofluorescence of the secreted material in glandular trichomes was observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy.

    KEY WORDS:  Micromeria thymifolia, trichomes, histochemistry, micromorphology

Ruderal flora and vegetation of the town of Žabljak (Montenegro) - an overview for the period 1990 - 1998
Pages 55-69

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    ABSTRACT:  The paper represents the results of floristic and vegetation studies of ruderal habitats in urban and suburban areas of the town of Žabljak (Montenegro) within the last decade of the 20th century. A total of 279 vascular plant taxa (species or subspecies level) was recorded, as well as 6 ruderal plant communities. Detailed taxonomic-systematic, ecological and phytogeographic analyses identified certain specificities of ruderal habitats of this mountain town (1450 m a.s.l.) which is the administrative seat of the Durmitor National Park. The results of these studies support the thesis that even mountain regions, which are considered to be at low risk of ruderalization and allochthonization, are not exempt from this process. In this sense, the paper affirms the need for future complex and comparative geobotanic research of other urban mountain areas in Montenegro and the Balkan Peninsula.

    KEY WORDS:  ruderal flora and vegetation, Žabljak, Montenegro

Morphological differentiation and conservation status of Cardamine pancicii (Brassicaceae), a stenoendemic of Mt. Kopaonik in Serbia
Pages 71-81

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    ABSTRACT: Cardamine pancicii Hayek has recently been reaffirmed as a "good species", and distributed only in Mt. Kopaonik in Serbia. Based on several years of field ivestigation, analyses of herbarium and literature data, as well as a formal morphometric study, detailed analyses of morphological differentiation, distribution, population size and conservation status of the species C. pancicii in Mt Kopaonik were carried out. The population from mires of Pajino Preslo is described as a new variety Cardamine pancicii var. palustris var. nova, 19 records were georeferenced with maximal accuracy, total population size of C. pancicii in Mt. Kopaonik was estimated to be approximately 1.7 million individuals, and the conservation status of species was defined as IUCN CR-B3c.

    KEY WORDS:  Cardamine, endemic species, critically endangered species, distribution, Balkan Peninsula

Reproductive Biology of the Balkan endemic Sideritis scardica (Lamiaceae)
Pages 83-87

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    ABSTRACT:  Sideritis scardica is one of the 270 endemic Balkan species in Bulgarian flora that occurs also in Albania, Greece, Serbia, R Macedonia and Turkey. The excessive exploiting of this valuable medicinal plant, known in Bulgaria as "Pirin mountain tea" or "Mursalitza tea", affects the state of its natural reserves. In this study, three main parameters of reproductive biology of S. scardica in the population from the Pirin Mts (Southern) were investigated: pollen viability (with acetocarmine staining), seed viability (with tetrazolium test) and seed germination (with/without addition of growth regulator GA ). These standard parameters of plant reproductive biology were used for an estimation of 3 reproductive capacity of S. scardica, to predict the future state of its natural populations in Bulgaria. The results of the study revealed that a strong relationship between percentage of seed viability, seed germination and duration of seed storage does not exist in this species. Most likely, these parameters depend on the peculiarities of the climatic conditions during times of the year when the seeds are collected.

    KEY WORDS:  Sideritis scardica, reproductive capacity, pollen viability