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    Volume 35
    Issue 2

The natural priority habitats in the Alpine zone of Bucegi Massif (Romanian Southern Carpathians)
Pages 79-86

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e research aim was to select and delimit natural habitats in the Romanian Southern Carpathians, in the alpine zone of the Bucegi Massif to realize the network of protected areas, Natura 2000, in Romania. Th erefore, both the habitats and their priority Red Book species were identifi ed, as well as Carpathian endemic or artic-alpine species. Habitats were described and the codes for them were in accordance with the database from the EMERALD soft ware; the habitat classifi cation is based on “A classifi cation of Palearctic habitats”, Habitats Directives - 92/43/EEC and on Romanian Law 462/2001 Annex 2. Consequently, the EUNIS code for habitats was used, related to phytosociological associations, as described in Romanian phytosociological literature. Th e Romanian codes for all of these were also added.

    KEY WORDS: Natura 2000, phytocoenoses, priority species

Anemone L. (Ranunculaceae): comparative morphology and taxonomy of the species from the Balkan flora
Pages 87-98

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e results of the study of comparative morphology and taxonomy of ten species of the genus Anemone L. in the fl ora of the Balkan peninsula are presented. These ten species belong to fi ve sections: A. coronaria L. and A. hortensis L. to sect. Anemone; A. sylvestris L. and A. baldensis L. to sect. Eriocephalus Hook. f. & Thoms.; A. nemorosa L., A. ranunculoides L. and A. trifolia L. to sect. Anemonanthea DC.; A. apennina L. and A. blanda Schott. & Kotschy to sect. Tuberosa (Ulbr.) Juz. and A. narcissiflora L. to sect. Omalocarpus DC. Special attention was paid to new and additional essential morphological characters: shape of fruiting heads, fruits and carpels (including styles and stigmas), and stamens (peculiarities of fi laments and anthers), anastomosing veins on tepals, shape of caudices or rhizomes, monopodial or sympodial stems, involucral leaves (similar or dissimilar to basal leaves). In addition, some characters which were previously overlooked are also presented: dimorphic perianth in A. nemorosa, A.ranunculoides, A. apennina and A. blanda; stipule-like appendages at the base of basal leaf petioles in all species of the sections Anemone and Tuberosa; stolon-like ephemeric rhizomes in A. coronaria and finally seasonally dimorphic basal leaves in A. hortensis but also hypogeal germination and developing of basal leaves aft er anthesis in all species of the section Anemonanthea in contrast to species of other sections, caudices and monopodial scapes in A. baldensis from sect. Eriocephalus, monopodial scapes but short vertical rhizomes in A. narcissiflora (and other species of sect. Omalocarpus).

    KEY WORDS: Balkan peninsula, Anemone species, essential morphological characters, taxonomy.

An insight into fatty acid chemistry of Rhytidiadelphus squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst.
Pages 99-102

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e fatty acid composition of the moss Rhytididelphus squarrosus (Hedw.) Warnst. (Hylocomiaceae) collected in Germany during winter time was analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Nine fatty acids were identifi ed in its chloroform:methanol extract 1:1: arachidonic acid (30.7%), ?-linolenic acid (19.1%), linoleic acid (15.1%), cis-5,8,11,14,17-eicosapentaenoic acid (14.4%), palmitic acid (11.9%), cis-8,11,14- eicosatrienoic acid (4.1%), oleic acid (2.3%), ?-linolenic acid (1.4%) and stearic acid (1.0%). Th e results indicate that this plant species can be a good source of arachidonic acid collected during the winter.

    KEY WORDS: moss; Rhytididelphus squarrosus; fatty acids; GC FID; GC-MS.

Novelties for the vascular flora of Serbia
Pages 103-110

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e fl ora of Eastern, South-Eastern and Southern parts of Serbia is one of the richest and the best studied in the country. A large number of newly recorded taxa has been reported from those areas in the last few decades. Th e currently updated species list indicates that Mediterranean plants s.l. is the most numerous group. Th is time, Petrorhagia velutina, Umbilicus rupestris, Carthamus dentatus, Carduus pycnocephalus, Hypochaeris cretensis, Scorzonera mollis, Asparagus verticillatus and Valerianella costata recorded in SE & S parts are reported ?? new species to the fl ora of Serbia. The phytogeographic importance of the new records is discussed within the scope of their northern distribution limits forming anew in Balkan Peninsula. The estimated threatened status for some of the taxa should present useful information for plant protection management in the region.

    KEY WORDS: Serbia, fl oristic novelties, Mediterranean and Pontic species, distribution, threatened status

Variability in stomatal features and leaf venation pattern in Indian coffee (Coffea arabica L.) cultivars and their functional significance
Pages 111-120

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    ABSTRACT: Several stomatal characteristics viz. stomatal frequency, epidermal cell frequency, stomatal index, leaf area served per stoma, stomatal plastid number and stomatal guard cell length and leaf architecture including major and minor venation pattern was studied in ten Indian arabica (Coffea arabica L.) cultivars. Signifi cant variation was observed for all stomatal characteristics as well as the leaf venation pattern such as leaf size, areole size, number of vein endings entering the areole and vein islets termination number in diff erent cultivars and is attributed to their origin involving diff erent parents and selection pressure. Th e coeffi cient of variability calculated for all the stomatal features indicated that both stomatal guard cell length and stomatal plastid number were least variable whereas leaf area served per stoma was the most variable character among cultivars. Among all the stomatal features, high heritability (h2) was observed for epidermal cell frequency. In all the cultivars, leaves were simple opposite with moderate mid-vein and entire margins. Th e major venation pattern was camptodromous type with festooned brochidodromous secondaries. Intersecondary veins were noticed in all cultivars. Th e marginal ultimate venation was either incomplete or incompletely looped. Th e functional signifi cance of stomatal features and leaf vein architecture is discussed.

    KEY WORDS:  Coffea arabica, Stomatal features, Leaf architecture, Minor venation, adaptation

Typha shuttleworthii in Ukraine and adjoining regions: tendencies of dynamics of distribution, ecological and coenotic peculiarities
Pages 121-124

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    ABSTRACT:  We present the results of analysis of the distribution of Typha shuttleworthii Koch & Sonder and tendencies of dynamics of its distribution in the Ukraine and adjoining regions. We regard T. shuttleworthii as a vulnerable taxon throughout Ukraine and adjoining regions, and the problem of conservation of its scattered localities is part of the problem to improve the hydrological balance and protection of river basin water resources. We established that until the 1990s this species had become rare in countries of the Carpathian Region, and during the last 10 to 15 years its natural habitats were situated mainly within protected areas. In particular, in the Ukrainian Carpathians its populations were found only at the East Beskids. Th e problem of conservation of T. shuttleworthii localities is related to restoration of the hydrological regime of landscapes and protection of river basin water resources.

    KEY WORDS:  Typha shuttleworthii, area, distribution, ecology, communities, threats.

Distribution of Carex distachya in Albania
Pages 125-130

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    ABSTRACT:  Carex distachya Desf., with more or less continuous range in the Mediterranean Basin, was apparently missing from Albania. Following several years of fi eld studies the authors managed to record the occurrence of C. distachya in Albania and to outline the distribution range of the species in the country.

    KEY WORDS:  Mediterranean, Carex, oak forest

Observations on the subterranean system of Smilax goyazana (Smilacaceae)
Pages 131-136

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    ABSTRACT: Cuttings from rhizome and root parts were obtained from adult plants of Smilax goyazana A. DC. (Smilacaceae) growing in the cerrado and cultivated in moist sand for three months. Seeds were left to germinate in a germination chamber under constant temperature of 250C and the subterranean system that formed was observed aft er 10 months of growth. All the cuttings had died by the end of the experiment. The subterranean system was composed of a hard tuberosity derived from the primordial node, which emitted few roots and one or more rhizomes. The rhizomes were sometimes branched; however, they did not emit adventitious roots. The roots were not branched. Thus, according to fractal geometry, the cuttings of this species were difficult to root because they were not sub-units of the adult plant.

    KEY WORDS:  Culm, Rhizome, Saponin, Vegetative Propagation

Can we predict mutagen-induced damage in plant systems mathematically? Insights from zygotic embryo and haploid mutagenesis in Indian mustard (Brasica juncea)
Pages 137-144

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    ABSTRACT:  This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between mutagen concentration, exposure duration and survival of zygotic embryos along with evaluation of microspore totipotency of the mutant donor plants of Brassica juncea. Three Indian genotypes were tested for varying mutagen concentrations (5-50 mM) and exposure durations (10-50 h) of three chemical mutagens, ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), ethyl nitrosourea (ENU) and ethidium bromide (EtBr), to study the eff ect of mutagen exposure on zygotic embryos. Th e exposure to EtBr resulted in 100% mortality, however, the survival data for EMS/ ENU analyzed by orthogonal contrast partitioning ANOVA revealed that concentration for both mutagens had a linear relationship with percent survival while exposure duration had a non-linear relationship. Multiple regression analysis was used to develop prediction functions for EMS/ ENU treatment survival and the LD50 for zygotic embryo mutagenesis for 20h duration ranged from 3.5mM for ENU to 6.8mM for EMS. Th is information was used to generate mutant donor plants for microspore culture and 48.8% EMS mutant donor plants produced 2.9 ± 0.4 embryos per Petri dish (total 943 embryos).

    KEY WORDS:  Indian mustard, Brassica juncea, LD50, multiple regression, haploid mutagenesis

Anatomy of four taxa of the genus Juniperus sect. Juniperus (Cupressaceae) from the Balkan peninsula
Pages 145-156

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e aim of this research was to describe variability of anatomical characteristics of needles and stems of the taxa: J. communis subsp. communis var . communis, J. communis subsp. communis var. intermedia Sanio, J. communis subsp. alpina (Suter) Celak and J. deltoides Adams, from Serbia, Montenegro and Macedonia (Balkan Peninsula), to establish whether anatomical diff erences are infl uenced by the phylogenetic or ecological position of individual taxa.
    Macroscopic and microscopic analyses were done on samples of 13 populations from Eu- Mediterranean coastal areas of up to 2,000 m a.s.l. in continental mountains. Descriptive statistics were calculated for 23 quantitative characters. Canonical Discriminant Analysis (CDA) and clustering on the basis of the UPGMA method were performed to measure distances between the groups.
    At an anatomical level there was fi ne diff erentiation between the taxa, at the level of species and subspecies. Th e species J. communis and J. deltoides differed in number of stomatal bands, needle cross-sectional shape, dimensions of the needle resin duct, as well as in the structure of the central cylinder in the primary structure of the stem. Within the species J. communis, high mountain subspecies J. communis subsp. alpina was finely differentiated compared with the typical subspecies J. communis subsp. communis. Basic differences between these two taxa were reflected in the shape and dimensions of the needles. Discriminant and cluster analyses did not show any major differences between J. communis subsp. communis var. communis and J. communis subsp. communis var. intermedia.
    Multivariate analysis showed that the level of anatomical diff erentiation of these taxa were conditioned partially by phylogenetic association of individual taxa, and partially by ecological conditions of the habitat.
    Our results showed that anatomical characteristics of needle and primary structures of the stem of these species of genus Juniperus have taxonomic signifi cance at the species and infraspecies levels.

    KEY WORDS:  Juniperus communis, J. deltoides, anatomy, needles, primary and secondary stem.

New chorological data and floristic notes for Albania
Pages 157-162

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    ABSTRACT:  Twelve taxa belonging to fi ve families are reported based on fi eldwork in Albania from 2007 to 2010. Eleven have not been recorded for the country in the relevant volumes of Flora Europaea, Flora of Albania or the Med-Checklist. Notes on ecology and distribution are provided and all the taxa are mapped within Albania and also in neighbouring countries to show the nearest occurrences in the western part of the Balkan Peninsula. Some taxa in their natural habitat are illustrated by photographs. New localities for two sub-endemic species, Silene schwarzenbergeri and Centaurea vlachorum, are listed; these extend their known limits of distribution even further north.

    KEY WORDS:  Albanian fl ora, Balkan Peninsula, distribution, endemic, new records

University of Belgrade Herbarium – treasury of data and challenges for future research
On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of the University of Belgrade Herbarium (1860-2010)
Pages 163-178

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