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    Volume 35
    Issue 1

Structural and ultrastructural characteristics of Rhodophyta from the Romanian Black Sea coast
Pages 3-12

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    ABSTRACT:  The present paper reports the results of our research on the morphology and ultrastructure of Polysiphonia denudata, Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnion corymbosum, Phyllophora nervosa,Porphyra leucosticta and completes a series of papers on the comparative ultrastructure of someRhodophyta from the Romanian Black Sea coast.The experimental part of researches was accomplished during the period July 2006 – April 2009 atthe laboratory of electronic microscopy of “Ovidius” University of Constantza, Romania. Strips ofthalli were cut out of the algal thallus from diff erent regions: basal, middle and apical region. In lightmicroscopy we used fresh thalli sectioned and observed at a Novex Holland photonic microscope,without colorants. Also, thin sections from algal thalli were processed by the electron microscopictechnique through transmission and was observed under the performing electronic microscope Philips CM120.At the ultrastructural level the most distinctive features comparatively analyzed are: possession ofsimple plastids with unstacked thylakoids, two layered chloroplast envelope, lack of chloroplasts ER,pit-connection or pit plug, floridean starch as the storage product, which lies freely in the cytoplasm,the thallus heaving uninucleate or multinucleate cells, the nuclei being small and with one or twonucleoli and cell wall composed of cellulose with the fi brils randomly arranged.

    KEY WORDS: Polysiphonia denudata, Ceramium rubrum, Callithamnion corymbosum, Phyllophora nervosa, Porphyra leucosticta.

The Cinclidotus P. Beauv./Dialytrichia (Schimp.) Limpr. complex (Bryopsida, Pottiaceae) in Turkey
Pages 13-30

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    ABSTRACT:  The hygrophytic Cinclidotus/Dialytrichia complex, typical for permanent water fl ows and sitesexposed to desiccation during low water tide, has been studied. For the fi rst time, fully descriptionsand illustrations for the species distributed in Turkey are given. In addition, an identifi cation key toall species of the complex is presented. C. pachylomoides is recorded for the fi rst time from Turkeyand C. acutifolius, previously known only from the western Himalayas (Kashmir) and Afghanistan,is synonymised with the widespread species, C. riparius.

    KEY WORDS: Hygrophytes, identifi cation key, mosses, phytogeography, plant anatomy, plant morphology, speciation centre

Induction of bulblets on leaf and bulb explants of endangered Lilium bosniacum (G. Beck) G. Beck ex Fritsch
Pages 31-36

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    ABSTRACT:  Organogenic capacity of leaves and bulb explants of Lilum bosniacum was tested. For direct shootformation MS medium with combinations of 0,5 mg/L BA and 0,2 mg/L IBA as well as 0,5 mg/LTDZ and 0,2 mg/L IBA was used. Both combinations supported shoot regeneration from bulbexplants, but only the BA + IBA combination encouraged shoot regeneration from leaf explants.Rhizogenesis was induced on MS basal medium with 0,2 mg/L IBA. Plantlets were successfullyacclimated under greenhouse conditions.

    KEY WORDS:  Regeneration, Lilum bosniacum, bulb and leaves explants

Ecology and distribution of red macrophytic algae from the Romanian Black Sea coast
Pages 37-42

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    ABSTRACT:  Th e unique nature of the Black Sea, as the Europe’s most isolated marine area, has as consequence the existence of a unique ecosystem, which was considered relatively stable until four decades ago.From the late 1960-s until now, various events aff ected the biological diversity and living resources.Th e Black Sea ecosystem, in its NW corner, has changed under the infl uence of human activities.Taking in consideration, a new approach of such studies is absolutely necessary in order to estimatethe major modifi cations that occurred in the state of macrophytobenthos, under the influence of harmful factors that disturbed the quality of marine environment and biodiversity. Th e presentpaper shows the data obtained after a 10 year long survey, compared with previous data, in orderto point out the changes of this major component of the ecosystem. The red algae were collectedfrom various types of hard substratum. From each sample, algae were identifi ed and representativeindividuals were kept for the herbarium collection. Th e biomass estimation was also made. Dueto the new created ecological conditions, the actual algal communities consist of a small numberof species, which show considerable biomass: some of them display a degree of cover up to 80%.Appropriate ways of conservation would be the improvement of physico-chemical conditions ofcoastal waters and maintenance of the under water marine reserve “Vama –Veche” in the south partof Romanian coast.

    KEY WORDS:  Romanian Black Sea coast, macrophytobenthos, red algae, Rhodophyta

Screening of plant extracts for antioxidant properties
Pages 43-48

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    ABSTRACT: Antioxidant properties of total methanol extracts from 54 species of 30 families were studied. DPPH(1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) radical was used for evaluation of free radical scavenging. Amongtested species, the extracts of Rumex crispus (radix), Rubus occidentalis (folia), Rumex alpinus(radix), Euphorbia helioscopia (herba) and Rubus idaeus (folia), exhibited the strongest activity.Signifi cant radical scavenging activity was found also in the extracts of Echium vulgare (herba),Plantago arenaria (herba), Viola tricolor (folia), Pyrus communis (folia), Sideritis montana (folia),Betula pendula (folia), Achillea critmifolia (herba), Santolina rosmarinifolia (herba), Morus alba(folia) and Erigeron canadensis (herba). Moderate activity was shown by extracts of Forsythia (folia),Bryonia alba (folia), Hepatica nobilis (folia), Plantago cornuti (folia), Maclura cochinchinensis (folia),Cihorium inhybus (herba) and Caltha palustris (herba).

    KEY WORDS:  antioxidant, DPPH, plant species

Caffeine induced genotoxic effects in Phaseolus vulgaris L. and Raphanus sativus L.
Pages 49-54

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    ABSTRACT:  The cytogenetic eff ects induced by two caffeine concentrations (0.1%, 0.5%) in root meristematiccells of plants belonging to two species of economic importance Phaseolus vulgaris and Raphanussativus are described in this article. Mitotic index, frequency and type of ana-telophase chromosomeaberrations, as well as the frequency and categories of metaphase abnormalities were comparativelyanalyzed for the two species. Th e results showed that caff eine has genotoxic potential; it inducesimportant alterations at the level on genetic material. Th e maximum tested concentration (0.5%caff eine) provided the most complex pattern of ana-telophase aberrations, especially in radish. R.sativus genotypes presented a higher sensibility to the caffeine action.

    KEY WORDS: caffeine, chromosome aberrations, genotoxicity, Phaseolus vulgaris, Raphanus sativus

Rumex confertus (Polygonaceae) in the Bulgarian flora
Pages 55-60

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    ABSTRACT:  Rumex confertus is an invasive plant to the fl ora of Bulgaria. Th e species is the only representativeof Rumex, sect. Rumex, subsect. Conferti in Bulgaria. Th e information about the distribution of thespecies in the country is contradictory. Th e materials of R. confertus were wrongly determined as R.patientia, probably because the two species have similar morphological characteristics. Diagnosticmorphological parameters and somatic chromosome number of the species 2n = 100 have beenpresented. Th is is the fi rst chromosome number report from the Balkans. New chorological dataof the species in the Bulgarian fl ora have been reported for the Znepole region. The Bulgarian distribution of the species has been mapped.

    KEY WORDS:  Bulgarian flora, chorology, chromosome number, map, Rumex confertus, morphology.

In vitro conservation of micro-propagated Ruscus aculeatus L. (Liliaceae) plants
Pages 61-66

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    ABSTRACT: In vitro conservation of micropropagated Ruscus aculeatus L. (Liliaceae) cultures was studied. Plantswere maintained without transfer on fresh media more than a year. Effi cient medium-term storagein two-phase culture at room temperature was proposed. Recovery of the cultures was investigatedon media supplied with various plant growth regulators. Two-phase cultivation allowed eff ortlessstorage for 16 months. Th e best regeneration rates in the post-storage cultivation were obtained onmedia with thidiazuron or kinetin.

    KEY WORDS:  Ruscus aculeatus, conservation, thidiazuron, micropropagation

Salidroside content in Rhodiola rosea L., dynamics and variability
Pages 67-70

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    ABSTRACT:  The aim of this study was to investigate the dynamics of the salidroside content in the undergroundparts of Rhodiola rosea L. during two consecutive vegetation periods and its variability. Th e obtainedannual trends of the salidroside content expressed similar pattern for both years and for both kindsof the investigated matherials (roots and rhizomes) of each sex. Th e signiffi cant infl uence on thecontent of salidroside exert the sex, plant part and season.

    KEY WORDS: Rhodiola rosea L., salidroside, variation, dynamics.

Axenically culturing the bryophytes: establishment and propagation of the moss Hypnum
cupressiforme Hedw. (Bryophyta, Hypnaceae) in in vitro conditions
Pages 71-77

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    ABSTRACT:  The study gives the fi rst report of in vitro culture of the pleurocarpous moss Hypnum cupressiformeand on the problems of axenicaly culturing this bryophyte and the conditions for establishment andpropagation. Problems of surface sterilization are elaborated regarding sporophyte vs. gametophyte.The influence of nutrient, light length and temperature on different developmental stages is discussed. The best conditions for micro-propagation from shoots are slightly lower temperature(18-20°C), on MS-sugar free medium irrelevant of day length. This moss is a counterpart of some rare and endangered mosses from the same genus and data presented should be taken intoaccount of conservation and propagation of its counterparts as well. Its propagation is valuable forhorticultural, pharmaceutical and bioindication purposes, as well.

    KEY WORDS:  moss, Hypnum cupressiforme, in vitro, development, propagation