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    Volume 33
    Issue 2

Southern European species in the flora of towns in the central Poland
Pages 115-129

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of the study was to investigate the participation and conditions of occurrence of southern European species (with Mediterranean or Mediterranean-continental type of geographic range) in the synanthropic floras of major towns in central Poland. Investigations were conducted for 7 towns in the region (with population larger than 50 thousand inhabitants): Lódz, Piotrków Trybunalski, Tomaszów Mazowiecki, Zgierz, Pabianice, Belchatów and Radomsko. They differ in size, history and dominant functions. Within the group of analysed towns, the largest is Lódz (760 thousand inhabitants) – city with the third largest population in Poland. In each of the towns, species connected with the Mediterranean area were analyzed with regard to their share and geographical-historical diversity against the background of entire synanthropic urban floras. A total of 142 southern European species were found to occur in the analysed towns (15% of their entire synanthropic flora and 30% in the flora of anthropophytes). The predominant group of species are non-naturalised anthropophytes (45%); a significant group is formed by archaeophytes (34%). The share of kenophytes is smaller (21%). In the individual towns, the number of southern European species varies from134 to 53. The share of southern European species in the flora varies from 12.2% to 16.4% for the total synanthropic flora and is the highest in Lódz i.e. the biggest city of the analyzed. The share of this group of species spreads differently among anthropophytes and metaphytes. In Lódz it is lower than in the other cities. Similarity analysis performed for entire grass floras and separately for geographical-historical groups in individual towns points to a very strong similarity between Lódz and Zgierz – two towns with a similar history and strong transport links.

    KEY WORDS: urban flora, southern European plants, synanthropization, central Poland
A Web-Enabled Interactive Application for the Development of a Knowledge Base on Greek Flora
Pages 131-136

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    ABSTRACT: This paper describes a web services application based on a Flora database. A relational database model is used to deliver information access services mainly to students, as well as educators and researchers of Landscape Architecture. The contents of the database are related to the vascular species of the Flora of Greece which could be used as ornamentals. Authorized users of the web services can also contribute to the content enrichment of the database. The aim of the project is the contribution to the evaluation of Greek flora and taking advantage of available knowledge base in education of Landscape Architecture. The embedded communication tools like forums can be used for delivering didactic activities based on the project method. The database structure, the way of use and the effectiveness of its use are briefly explained.

    KEY WORDS: Flora Database, Web Services, Landscape Architecture, Ornamental Plants, Greece.
Axenically culturing the bryophytes: a case study of the moss Dicranum scoparium Hedw. (Dicranaceae, Bryophyta)
Pages 137-140

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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to establish axenic culture of the moss Dicranum scoparium a counterpart of rare and widly endangered D. viride. The media contents, as well as light and temperature were varied to find the optimal conditions for spore germination, protonema growing, bud formation and gametophyte development. The best contitions for micropropagation or axenically bryo-farming is to grow D. scoparium on the MS medium enriched with sucrose (1.5%), at 18-20°C independent of light length condition.

    KEY WORDS:  moss, Dicranum scoparium, in vitro, axenical culture
On the position of the tribe Eritrichieae in the Boraginaceae system
Pages 141-146

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    ABSTRACT: A system of the tribe Eritrichieae for the first time developed from evolutionary-morphological and floristic-genetic approaches, contains 6 subtribes and 22 genera. A comparative analysis of all characters and chorology of species allowed to find the position of the tribe Eritrichieae in the Boraginaceae system and proposed an assumed paths of its evolution.

    KEY WORDS: Boraginaceae, tribe Eritrichieae, phylogenetic system, evolution, primary sculpture of nutlets. .
Endemic plants of Basarakavak and environs (Konya, Turkey)
Pages 147-155

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    ABSTRACT: As a result of floristic investigation of the region among Basarakavak town, Tatköy and Altinapa Dam within Konya city borders carried out between 2004 and 2006, 691 taxa belonging to 90 families and 370 genera were recorded. The number of endemic taxa within the study area is 100 (14.5%). Within the endemic flora, the largest families are Leguminosae (15), Labiatae (14), and Compositae (12) in terms of the number of species and subspecies included. Genus represented by the highest number of endemic taxa is Astragalus (13). The distribution of phytogeographic elements of the endemic flora is 59% for Irano-Turanian, 15% for Mediterranean, 1% for Euro-Siberian, and 25% for others (widespread or unknown). In addition, for all the endemic taxa, IUCN (2001) threatened category was defined. As a result of this, two endemic species are in Endangered (EN) category, while ten endemic plants are concidered to be vulnerable (VU).

    KEY WORDS:  Flora, Endemic, Basarakavak, Tatköy, Altinapa Dam, Konya, Turkey
In vitro culture of Balkan endemic and rare Pulsatilla species for conservational purposes and secondary metabolites production
Pages 157-162

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    ABSTRACT: Shoot cultures of Pulsatilla montana ssp. balcana, P. halleri ssp. rhodopaea and P. slaviankae (Zimm.) Jordanov & Kozuharov were initiated from surface-sterilized seeds of the three species, collected at their natural habitats. Shoot cultures of the three species in Murashige and Skoog’s culture medium (MS) exhibited a chlorophyll a/b (chl a/b) ratio ranging from 1, 86 to 3, 01. Moreover by using different concentrations of benzyladenine and 3-indole butyric acid the chl a/b ratio differed from species to species, showing a different adaptability of species to different media. The shoot cultures of the three Pulsatilla species were also analyzed as an in vitro source of polyphenolic antioxidant substances so they were screened for total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanidins content in three media variants, demonstrating the highest content for these substances in P. montana ssp. balcana and P. halleri ssp. rhodopaea in the growth regulator-free and 6-benzyladenine – supplemented medium, while in medium supplemented with auxin and cytokinin all three species produced commensurable levels of the studied metabolites.

    KEY WORDS: Pulsatilla montana ssp. balcana, P. halleri ssp. rhodopaea, P. slaviankae (Zimm.) Jordanov & Kozuharov, shoot cultures, antioxidant phenolics, photosynthetic pigments
Structural responses of the photosynthetic apparatus of Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. to temperature stress aft er cryopreservation
Pages 163-167

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    ABSTRACT: Histological structure of leaves from in vitro propagated Orthosiphon stamineus Benth. plants was investigated as follows: control plants without cryopreservation, plants, passed through cryopreservation, pre-treated in two ways (16 h sucrose 0.3M and 10 days ABA/abscisic acid/ 0.076µ?) and adapted ex vitro micropropagated plants. Light microscopy analysis (LM) revealed that low temperature cause collapse of the photosynthetic tissues. Pre-treatment with sucrose diminishes stress effect. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis gave additional information about the structure of the epidermis of in vitro cultivated plants.

    KEY WORDS: cryopreservation, structure, tissues, cuticle, Orthosiphon stamineus
Forest fires - ecological and economic problem in Serbia
Pages 169-176

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    ABSTRACT: In the forests managed by the State Enterprise for Forest Management “Srbijašume“, in the period 1998-2008, 853 forest fires were registered with the burnt area of 16,357 hectares. From the aspect of damage and consequences, forest fires are a global problem and demand the engagement of all institutions and social subjects, and also the significant financial means for the prevention and suppression of forest fires and for the reclamation of burnt areas. The consequences of wildfires are evident for many years: degradation of forest ecosystems, protected areas, biological diversity; soil (erosion and landslides), climate, microclimate, water balance, sustainable development, etc. Forest fires are major economic problems in Serbian forestry, because they destroy vast forest areas, and also an ecological problem, because of their adverse effect on other forest functions. Damages by forest fires are divided into direct and indirect damage. Direct damage includes the damage caused to trees and assortments. Indirect damage is the most important damage and it includes the harm caused by the lack of profit and ecological damage which is beyond price. The objectives of the organisation of forest protection against wildfires in SE “Srbijašume“ are to prevent the occurrence of forest fires and to detect and suppress the wildfire as soon as possible.

    KEY WORDS: Forest fires, Serbia, ecological consequences, economic consequences
Floristic and chorological news from north Albania
Pages 177-183

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    ABSTRACT: The North Albania region includes Albanian part of Mt Bjeshkët e Nemuna (Prokletije) massif, Mt Pashtrik on the east, Mt Tarabosh (southernmost part Mt Rumija) on the west, as well as the right side of the river Drin/Drim valley with surrounding mountain areas. It represents an area with the noticeably richer flora than any other region in Albania. Six new vascular plant species for Albania were reported: Adenostyles alpina (L.) Bluff & Fingerh, Calamagrostis varia (Schrad.) Host, Grafia golaka (Hacq.) Rech., Melampyrum nemorosum L. Crocus weldenii Hoppe & Fürnrohr and Viburnum maculatum Pant., of which last two species are Balkan endemics. New floristic records for the Albanian flora are also presented for five taxa: Amphoricarpus autariatus Blecic. & May. subsp. bertisceus Blecic & E. Mayer, Iris reichenbachii Heuff., Rumex balcanicus Rech. fil., Senecio squalidus L. subsp. rupestris (Walds. & Kit.) Greuter and Potentilla heptaphylla L. subsp. australis (Krašan ex Nyman) Gams var. malyana (Borbás ex Malý) G. Beck.

    KEY WORDS: New floristic and chorological additions, North Albania, Bjeshkët e Nemuna (Prokletije), Mt Pashtrik.
The biological evidence of climate changes: a case study of liverwort Lunularia cruciata (L.) Dum. ex Lindb. in Serbia
Pages 185-187

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