? Botanica Serbica - Volume 41 Issue 1
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    Volume 41
    Issue 1

Fatty acid composition of the cypselae of two endemic Centaurea species (Asteraceae)
Janaćković P, Gavrilović M,Vujisić LJ, Matevski V & Marin PD
Pages 3-9

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    ABSTRACT:  The fatty acid composition of cypselae of two endemic species from Macedonia, Centaurea galicicae and C. tomorosii, is analysed for the first time, using GC/MS (gas chromatography/mass spectrometry). In the cypselae of C. galicicae, 11 fatty acids were identified, palmitic (hexadecanoic) acid (32.5%) being the most dominant. Other fatty acids were elaidic [(E)-octadec-9-enoic] acid (13.9%), stearic (octadecanoic) acid (12.8%) and linoleic [(9Z,12Z)-9,12-octadecadienoic] acid (10.6%). Of the 11 identified fatty acids, seven were saturated fatty acids, which represented 41.5% of total fatty acids, while unsaturated fatty acids altogether constituted 58.5%. In the cypselae of C. tomorosii, five fatty acids were identified. The major fatty acid was linolelaidic [(9E,12E)-octadeca-9,12-dienoic] acid (48.8%). The second most dominant fatty acid was oleic [(9Z)-octadec-9-enoic] acid (34.2%). Thus, unsaturated fatty acids were present with 83%. The other three fatty acids identified were saturated fatty acids, which represented 17% of total fatty acids. As a minor fatty acid, levulinic (4-oxopentanoic) acid was determined in both C. galicicae and C. tomorosii(0.3% and 3.2%, respectively). The obtained results differ from published data on dominant fatty acids in the cypselae of other species belonging to the same section as the species investigated in the present paper (section Arenariae, subgenus Acrolophus, genus Centaurea). They also, differ from published data referable to other genera belonging to the same tribe (Cardueae). The general chemotaxonomic significance of fatty acids is discussed

    KEY WORDS:  fatty acids, Centaurea, Arenariae, Compositae, chemotaxonomy

Effect of ABA treatment on activities of antioxidativeenzymes in selected bryophyte species
Vujičić MM, Milošević SM, Sabovljević MS & Sabovljević AD
Pages 11-15

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    ABSTRACT:  The effect of the signal molecule and stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) on activities of antioxidant enzymes was tested in three bryophyte species, viz., the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha and the phylogenetically unrelated mosses Physcomitrella patens and Atrichum undulatum. Production of reactive oxygen species increases in plants exposed to both abiotic and biotic stress. Antioxidant enzymes are very effective and usually represent the plant’s first line of defence against the cytotoxic effects of these reactive oxygen species. The activities of enzymes of the antioxidative system (POX, CAT, SOD) in the tested bryophyte species are shown to be increased by treatment with lower concentrations of exogenous ABA. Higher concentrations of exogenous ABA did not significantly influence activities of the tested antioxidative enzymes. The obtained results point to possible involvement of ABA as a signal molecule in the first line of defence against stress in all three bryophyte species.

    KEY WORDS:  mosses, liverworts, abscisic acid, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, catalase

Protective effects of polyamines against UV-A and UV-B illumination in Physcia semipinnata Thalli
Esmer I, Tüney İ, Özakça DU&Sukatar A
Pages 17-24

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    ABSTRACT:  The damage to DNA induced by UV-A and UV-B and protective effects of the polyamines putrescine (put), spermidine (spd) and spermine (spm) were investigated on the lichen Physcia semipinnata in the present study. Our results suggest that significant alterations of the photosynthetic quantum yield ratio occurred in response to increased UV-A and UV-B exposure time. The photosynthetic quantum yield ratio gradually decreased in P. semipinnata following exposure to UV-A and UV-B. Physcia semipinnata Thalli which were treated with a polyamine in a concentration of 1 mM were not affected by UV-A exposure for 72 h. In the case of UV-B treatment, the protective polyamine dosage was 0.25 mM. We also used the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique to detect DNA damage. The main changes observed in the RAPD profiles, which were obtained using 12 RAPD primers, were the appearance or disappearance of different bands and variation of their intensities. The use of at least three different primers allowed detection of specific band patterns in both UV-A- and UV-B-exposed samples treated with polyamines as compared to untreated ones.

    KEY WORDS:  RAPD-PCR, putrescine, spermidine, spermine, lipid peroxidation

Antioxidant response of the invasive alien species Parthenium hysterophorus L. under abiotic stress conditions with special emphasis on boiling-stable antioxidant enzymes
Mamik S & Dev Sharma A
Pages 141-151

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    ABSTRACT:  Invasive alien plants have broad distribution throughout the world, displacing the indigenous vegetation, stunting the growth or development of native plants and diminishing their establishment in agricultural and natural areas. Parthenium hysterophorus is a noxious potential invader of a region whose harmful status can be attributed to its allelopathic effects and prolific seed production. However, there has been little research on the physiological and biochemical mechanisms governing its abiotic stress tolerance. Plants growing under natural conditions were sampled at random in the vicinity of Jalandhar. Samples were subjected to analysis for abiotic stress-induced changes in reactive oxygen species and free radical-scavenging boiling-stable antioxidant enzymes. Indices of oxidative stress such as malondialdehyde (MDA) and the membrane injury index (MII) were also studied. In order to discover a possible reason for the biological invasiveness of P. hysterophorus, in the present investigation we studied enzymatic and non-enzymatic biochemical changes that might explain it. Malondialdehyde and MII, indices of stress, increased with a rise in hydrogen peroxide and superoxide anion content in an organ- and abiotic condition-dependent manner, affirming oxidative stress to the plant. An elevated level of the antioxidant metabolite GSH was observed in June, which played a positive role in minimising the oxidative stress. Antioxidative enzymes such as BsSOD, BsPOD, BsGST, BsMDAR, BsPDI, BsTRx exhibited activities that increased in an organand abiotic condition-dependent manner. On the basis of the obtained results, we conclude that P. hysterophorus has the potential to cope with abiotic stress by accumulating abiotic stress-related metabolites and proteins

    KEY WORDS:  Parthenium hysterophorus, oxidative stress, ascorbate, glutathione, antioxidant enzymes, boilingstable proteins

Effects of exogenous application of nano particles and compatible organic solutes on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.)
Janmohammadi M, Yousefzadeh S, Dashti S & Sabaghnia N
Pages 37-46

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    ABSTRACT: Mediterranean semi-arid regions in northwestern Iran receive precipitation below potential evapotranspiration and are characterised by excessive heat and terminal drought stress. Exogenous application of some nanoparticles and growth regulators appears to alleviate the adverse effects of abiotic stress and improve plant performance. In the present paper, an attempt is made to evaluate the effects of foliar application of salicylic acid (SA), glycine betaine (GB), ascorbic acid (AA), nano-silica (nSiO2) and nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) suspensions on growth and yield components of sunflower (cv. Azargol) in the semi-arid highland region of Maragheh, Iran. Plants were grown under rain-fed conditions with supplemental irrigation applied three times during the reproductive growth stages of growth. The results revealed that foliar application of SA considerably improved head diameter, chlorophyll content of plant leaves, and days to flowering, while it delayed physiological maturity for a fairly long time. Evaluation of the achene yield component indicated that application of GB significantly increased the weight of achenes when compared with other treatments. The percentage of empty achenes was considerably affected by treatments, the lowest percentage of hollow achenes being recorded for plants sprayed with GB, followed by ones sprayed with AA and nTiO2. The percentage of oil in sunflower achenes was substantially increased by foliar application of nano particles, the highest oil percentage being recorded in plants treated with nTiO2. The results also showed that the highest number of achenes per head, greatest kernel weight, and largest achene size were obtained by spraying with nanoparticle suspensions. Although all treatments improved the achene yield, the effect of nTiO2 was most prominent. The results of the present experiment support the conclusion that foliar application of nanoparticles may alleviate adverse environmental factors and improve the performance of plants in semi-arid regions.

    KEY WORDS:  compatible solutes, nano silicon dioxide, oil content, terminal drought stress, TiO2 nanoparticles

Evaluation of microbial diversity of the microbial mat from the extremely acidic Lake Robule (Bor, Serbia)
Stanković S, Vasiljević B, Jeremić S, Cvetković V &Morić I
Pages 47-54

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    ABSTRACT:  Extremely acidic environments are frequently formed in areas impacted by mining activities, and Lake Robule is such an ecosystem. Although an extreme environment, Lake Robule is inhabited by acidophilic microorganisms. We investigated biodiversity of the macroscopic structure known as a microbial mat formed on the lake bottom in shallow waters. Microbial mats are common in acidic environments, but their composition can differ significantly from site to site. Microbial diversity of the mat from Lake Robule was investigated using both cultivation-dependent and metagenomic approaches. The results showed the mat to be mostly inhabited by heterotrophic acidophilic bacteria. When compared to the microbial community of Lake Robule’s surface water, the microbial mat proved to be a more complex community. A biogeochemical model of the mat of Lake Robule is proposed on the basis of our results and available published data.

    KEY WORDS:  Lake Robule, acidic environment, microbial mat, acidophiles, metagenomic analysis, T-RFLP

First record of Paralemanea torulosa (Roth) Sheath & A.R. Sherwood and new findings of Lemanea fluviatilis (Linnaeus) C. Ag. and Hildenbrandia rivularis (Liebmann) J. Agardh (Rhodophyta) in Serbia
Blagojević A, SubakovSimić G, Blaženčić J, Ilić M, Petrović J, Kostić D &Marjanović P
Pages 55-63

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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents the first record of the freshwater red alga Paralemanea torulosa and new findings of the species Lemanea fluviatilis and Hildenbrandia rivularis in Serbia. The existence of all three species was recorded in the upper reaches of clean fast-flowing rivers and brooks belonging to the basin of the Danube River. Lemanea fluviatilis was found in the Dojkinacka River in Eastern Serbia, while Paralemanea torulosa was recorded in the Drina River and Hildenbrandia rivularis in the Cvetica Brook and Bioštanska Banja Brook in Western Serbia. These reports are important for conservation of the biodiversity of Serbia, since it is well known that freshwater red algae are endangered and rare species (taxa) in many countries. In Serbia they are under strict protection of the law.

    KEY WORDS:  Hildenbrandia, Lemanea, Paralemanea, Rhodophyta, algae, Serbia

New data on distribution and ecology of Batrachospermum (Rhodophyta) in Serbia
Simić SB & Đorđević NB
Pages 65-70

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    ABSTRACT: The paper describes the distribution and ecology of populations of the genus Batrachospermum collected in Serbia from 2006 to 2015 at 10 sites, all of which represent new localities of Batrachospermum in Serbia. The records of this genus in the Boracka River and in a spring near Kragujevac (Cerovac) are the first in Central Serbia. Batrachospermum was recorded at altitudes of from 235 to 1600 m at localities mainly in partial or full shade on stone, gravel or concrete substrata in cold water (10.50 - 15.40oC) that was neutral to weakly alkaline (pH 7.2 – 8.65) with conductivity of from 55 to 539 µS/cm. Species of the genus Batrachospermum in Serbia have to date been recorded in clean, well-aerated waters with a low concentration of biogenic salts and in habitats without anthropogenic impact. Any factors altering abiotic parameters of their habitats can lead to changes and the loss of populations of the sensitive species of this genus.

    KEY WORDS:  distribution, ecology, Batrachospermum, Rhodophyta, Serbia

Hierochloë repens (Host) Simonk. (Gramineae) in Serbia
Perić R, Panjković B, Stojšić V & Rilak S
Pages 71-77

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    ABSTRACT:  During a field study of steppic flora and vegetation conducted on the [Veliki] Rimski Šanac in the vicinity of Gospodinci and on the Deliblato Sands (Serbia: Vojvodina Province), we found Hierochloë repens, a Eurasian species from the family Gramineae that is autochthonous on the Pannonian Plain as well and was for a long time neglected in the flora of Serbia. After examination of herbarium specimens from Serbia belonging to the H. odorata complex, we conclude that the only member of the complex present in Serbia is H. repens, which was formerly misinterpreted as H. odorata s.str.

    KEY WORDS:  flora, chorology, Serbia

Refinding of the critically endangered species Eranthis hyemalis (L.) Salisb. in Western and Eastern Serbia
Petrović I &Lakušić D
Pages 79-82

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    ABSTRACT:  Eranthis hyemalis is a critically endangered species in Serbia, where it is protected by national law. The only confirmed finding place of the species in Serbia was the Bagremara forest near Backa Palanka. It was assumed that the species disappeared from other recorded localities, or else the data were not confirmed. During a field study in 2016, we registered this species in Valjevo, a town in Western Serbia. A previous record of the species at this locality dates from 1992, but the precise location was not known. We also registered a small population in Eastern Serbia (on the hill Vrška Cuka). Both localities were georeferenced with GPS devices. Small groups of individuals are present at these locations, and they are endangered by multiple factors. All chorological data for Serbia are presented on a UTM grid map with squares of 10 km × 10 km. Protection measures are urgently required.

    KEY WORDS:  Eranthis hyemalis, critically endangered, distribution, Serbia

Dysphania pumilio (R. Br.) Mosyakin & Clemants (Amaranthaceae), a new allochthonous species in the flora of Serbia
Bogosavljević S & Zlatković B
Pages 83-87

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    ABSTRACT:  Dysphania pumilio (Amaranthaceae) is a new allochthonous species in the flora of Serbia. During the period of 2006-2016, it was recorded at three localities in the valley of the Pcinja River in southeastern Serbia. On the basis of the number of populations and the period of time elapsed since it was recorded for the first time in 2006, we assume that this species is now naturalised in Serbia. Dysphania pumilio in Serbia is found in ruderal habitats within settlements, on sand and gravel riverbanks, in well-trodden places along roads, in abandoned cultivated fields, etc., usually within the Sysimbrion officinalis, Hordeion murini and Eragrostidion vegetation alliances. The populations of D. pumilio that have been established to date do not show an invasive character in relation to preserved natural habitats in Serbia

    KEY WORDS:  allochthonous species, Amaranthaceae, Dysphania pumilio, Serbia

Eclipta prostrata (L.) L. (Compositae), an adventive species new to the flora of Serbia
Perić R & Rilak S
Pages 89-93

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    ABSTRACT:  During field investigations of the wetland flora on Danubian islands in the vicinity of Pancevo (Serbia), we found the plant species Eclipta prostrata (Compositae). This adventive species with pantropical distribution has never before been recorded in Serbia. The present paper provides basic information about its morphological features, biology and habitat preferences, as well as some data on its coenology and the possible pathways of its introduction.

    KEY WORDS:  flora, chorology, neophytes, Serbia

Euphorbia prostrata Aiton (Euphorbiaceae) – an adventive species new in Serbia
Veljić MM Rajčević NF &Bukvički DR
Pages 95-98

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    ABSTRACT:  In the vascular flora of Serbia, the genus Euphorbia is represented with 36 species belonging to the subgenera Esula, Chamaesyce, Euphorbia and Rhizanthium. Five species of E. subg. Chamaesyce have been recorded so far in Serbia: E. chamaesyce, E. maculata, E. humifusa, E. nutans and E. davidii. During our research on the flora of Belgrade in 2012, we found a species new for the vascular flora of Serbia - E. prostrata from the mentioned section, on the banks of the Sava River.

    KEY WORDS:  Euphorbia prostrata, Euphorbiaceae, new records, adventive species, Serbia

Contribution to knowledge of the flora of the Republic of Macedonia
Teofilovski A.
Pages 99-103

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    ABSTRACT:  This paper presents some of the results of a floristic study conducted during the past two years in different regions of Macedonia. New chorological data and data on their habitats are given for 12 taxa of the vascular flora of Macedonia, among which one species (Seseli annuum) is new for the country. Three species (Lathyrus linifolius, Lactuca plumieri, Serratula tinctoria) are rediscovered for the first time after eight or even more decades, and the presence of one species (Staehelina uniflosculosa) is confirmed. In addition, one or more new localities are presented for the following seven rare taxa: Carduus personata subsp. albidus, Epilobium anagallidiifolium, Peucedanum alsaticum, Schoenus nigricans, Sorbus × latifolia s.l., Vicia hybrida and V. montenegrina.

    KEY WORDS:  flora, first report, chorological data, Macedonia

Acknowledgement of indebtedness to referees

Pages 105-106
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