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    BOTANICA SERBICA
    Volume 40
    Issue 2
    2016

Editorial
Temniskova, D.
Pages 107

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Professor Dr. Jelena Blažencic, On the occasion of her 80th birthday
Stevanovic, B.
Pages 109-118

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Dominance of Microcystis spp. in Lake Dojran – a consequence of 30 years of accelerated eutrophication
Krstic, S. S., Alekovski, B.
Pages 119-128

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    ABSTRACT:  In the past 30 years, Lake Dojran (Macedonia) has experienced extreme periods of droughts and water removal for irrigation purposes that have resulted in an accelerated process of eutrophication leading to hypertrophy. In the present paper, we document successive changes of the micro?ora in plankton communities as a result of the prolonged eutrophication impact over this period. Te original well established phytoplankton community in the lake, which was rich in species (especially coccoid green forms belonging to the genera Pediastrum, Scenedesmus, Staurastrum and Tetraedon) and which followed the natural annual succession in the form of diatoms > green algae > cyanobacteria, has been greatly modifed over the years. Two episodes of intensive ‘water blooms’ have been recorded, one involving Gloeotrichia natans (in 1993/94) and the other the dino?agellates Ceratium hirudinella and C. monoceros (1996/97), events that indicated drastic changes of the ecological conditions. Dominance of Dolichospermum aff. flosaquae was recorded in 2008. Finally, the phytoplankton in Lake Dojran completed a turnover towards the overall dominance of Microcystis spp., with a total of nine co-existing species. The first documented record of Microcystis protocystis outside pan- and neotropical regions is here presented. The described successions in phytoplankton species composition and dominance are attributed to gradual and constant changes in the nutrient status of the lake in the direction of hypertrophy, the basic nutritive parameters, total P and N content, having increased more than 40- and eight-fold, respectively, over the years. Measurements of cyanobacterial toxicity have been few, and they were sporadically performed. Nonetheless, the presence of microcystins in the water has been documented, with indications of signifcant concentration peaks. Te paper is intended to be a tribute to all scientifc workers who, like Professors Jelena and Živojin Blažencic, have devoted their expertise and time to the task of revealing forced changes in the lake’s biota in the hope of creating a favourable atmosphere for immediate human intervention to save this once very rich and diverse ecosystem.

    KEY WORDS:  Lake Dojran, eutrophication, phytoplankton changes, Microcystis sp. dominance, neo-tropical form

Qualitative and quantitative composition of the algal community in the water column of the Grlište reservoir (Eastern Serbia)
Gavrilovic, B., Popovic, S., Ciric, M., Subakov–Simic, G., Krizmanic, J. and Vidovic, M. 
Pages 129-135

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    ABSTRACT:  The aim of this paper was to determine the diversity, density and biomass of algal populations in the water column of the Grlište reservoir, situated in Eastern Serbia. A total of 199 species were recorded during the study period, showing a well-diversifed community. Temporal and spatial diversity patterns were investigated through seasonal variation in the abundance and biomass of taxa. Bacillariophyta, Chlorophyta and Cyanobacteria were considerably more abundant, in terms of both the number of taxa and the number of cells in the water column, than the remaining algal groups. Te succession of these algal groups showed some similarities with Sommer’s PEG model.

    KEY WORDS:  algae, species diversity, biomass, seasonal succession, abundance

Macrophytic vegetation in the oligotrophic Mediterranean Lake Vrana (Island of Cres, Northern Adriatic) – New insight after 50 years
Alegro, A., Stankovic, I., Šegota, V., Weyer, K. van de and Blažencic, J. 
Pages 137-144

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    ABSTRACT:  Lake Vrana is a natural oligotrophic lake situated on the island of Cres (northeastern Adriatic Sea). Its macrophytic flora and vegetation were studied in 2010, nearly 50 years after the first comprehensive research on it. Vegetation of vascular plants, including belts of helophytes and submersed vegetation, dominates in the shallowest water. Charophytic vegetation starts to develop at the depth of approximately 8 m and is present in three clear zones dominated by Chara aculeolata, Ch. virgata and Nitella opaca, reaching a final depth of 30 m. The lake and its vegetation belong to habitat type 3140 (hard oligo-mesotrophic waters with benthic vegetation of Chara species), protected by the Habitat Directive. Due to the presence of several charophyte species endangered in the Balkans and Europe, the lake is an important site for the conservation of charophytes at the national and European levels. Great changes in the water regime over the last decades due to increase of water temperature and overexploitation of the lake’s water are exerting a strong negative effect on this protected special reserve. A future comprehensive monitoring program, including climatological observation and surveillance of introduced alien fish populations, should focus on determining the cause of the observed retreat of vegetation in the lake.

    KEY WORDS:  charophytes, macrophytes, helophytes, karst lake, stratification, Croatia

Macrophyte vegetation as a structuring factor of the macrozoobenthic communities in Lake Ohrid
Trajanovski, S., Budzakoska-Gjoreska, B., Trajanovska, S., Talevska, M. and Zdraveski, K.
Pages 141-151

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    ABSTRACT:  The macrophyte communities in Lake Ohrid have a key role in general maintaining of the lake’s metabolism. They are particularly important for the distribution and structuring of rich benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages, in as much as they provide a constant stream of oxygen, are an important source of food and serve as shelter from predators. A survey at six sites along the coastal zone of Lake Ohrid was conducted in order to determine the role of macrophyte communities in structuring of the macrozoobenthos inhabiting the littoral zone of the lake. With respect to species composition, the results point to the Gastropoda, with 23 registered taxa, as the most diverse among the seven groups of benthic fauna. The second most diverse was the group of Insecta with 11 species, followed by Hirudinea and Oligochaeta with seven species, while six species from Crustacea were registered. The lowest biodiversity was registered for Bivalvia and Turbellaria – three species from each group. It was also found that mixed stands of Charophyta with other macrophytes where Charophyta species predominate represent the most attractive habitats, being inhabited by 54 species, versus homogenous stands of Chara tomentosa, where 36 species were registered. The most abundant species were Dreissena presbensis and Radix relicta, which reached their maximum densities on homogenous stands of Chara tomentosa.

    KEY WORDS:  Lake Ohrid, macrophyte vegetation, macrozoobenthos, habitats

Epilithic diatom flora from sub-Mediterranean intermittent rivers in Bulgaria during two hydrological periods
Isheva, T. and Ivanov, P.
Pages 153-160

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    ABSTRACT: The paper presents the first floristic data on diatoms from sub-Mediterranean intermittent rivers in Bulgaria, located within the four largest river basins (Struma, Arda, Maritsa and Tundzha), which drain into the Aegean Sea. A total of 90 epilithic diatom samples were collected from 37 rivers at 50 sites during normal-flow and low-flow seasons. Altogether, 281 species, varieties and forms from 71 genera were identified, almost half of which (138 taxa) were recorded with relative abundance below 1%. Two hundred and forty-six taxa (87% of the total number) were identified during normal-flow periods, while 195 taxa (69%) were identified during low-flow periods. Diatoms recorded only during normal-flow periods were ones common for riverine environments, while in low-flow periods taxa characteristic of stagnant waters, intermittently wet habitats or such habitats with high electrolyte content (brackish habitats) were present. Four taxonomically unclear taxa (Achanthidium cf. affine, Achnanthidium cf. nanum, Psammothidium cf. grischunum and Psammothidium cf. rossii) are discussed in terms of their morphometrics, distribution and autecology; LM micrographs of these species are provided. Eleven taxa are new records for the Bulgarian diatom flora.

    KEY WORDS:  Bacillariophyta, Mediterranean rivers, phytobenthos, river type R14

First record of the genus Decussata (Patrick) LangeBertalot (Bacillariophyta) in Serbia – distribution of the rare species D. hexagona (Torka) Lange-Bertalot
Krizmanic, J., Jakovljevic, O., Vidakovic, D. and Jovanovic, J. 
Pages 161-165

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    ABSTRACT:  The aim of this paper is to present the distribution of Decussata hexagona, a new species in diatom flora of Serbia. Seventy-two diatom samples were collected from six localities along the Vrla and Rasina Rivers during 2011 and 2012. Decussata hexagona was recorded with single specimens or low relative abundance (0.3%) from epilithic communities in seven samples from the Vrla River and in one sample from the Rasina River. It was recorded in unusual epilithic habitats of running neutral to low-alkaline waters with low ion content.

    KEY WORDS:  Bacillariophyta, Decussata hexagona, distribution, autecology, Vrla River, Rasina River

Revision of the Stauroneis smithii Grunow (Bacillariophyceae) species complex from Macedonia
Levkov, Z., Tofilovska, S., Jovanovska, E., Cvetkoska, A. and Metzeltin, D. 
Pages 167-178

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    ABSTRACT: Stauroneis smithii is considered to be a widely distributed and highly variable species complex. So far, more than 20 infraspecific taxa have been described. In the present study, six members of this complex were observed. Stauroneis smithii is widely distributed in Macedonia, recorded from various aquatic habitats. Minor morphological variations were observed between the populations found in oligotrophic, slightly acidic habitats and ones found in meso- to eutrophic ponds and rivers. Stauroneis separanda and S. prominula were infrequently observed in mountain habitats and always at low abundance. In previous studies, Stauroneis borgei and S. balatonis were found in both the modern flora and the fossil diatom record from Lakes Ohrid and Prespa. In those studies, these two taxa were identified as varieties of S. smithii, designated elliptica and incisa, respectively. In the present study, one form with unique morphological features was observed and is here described as a new species, Stauroneis blazenciciae sp. nov. The new species can be easily differentiated from S. smithii by the valve shape: elliptical-lanceolate with weakly undulate margins in the largest specimens to linear-lanceolate with valve margins gradually narrowing towards the abruptly protracted to acute apices.

    KEY WORDS:  diatoms, Macedonia, new species, Stauroneis blazenciciae, Stauroneis smithii complex

Prestauroneis blazenciciae, a seventh species of the genus proposed as new to science
Metzeltin,D. and Lange-Bertalot,H.
Pages 179-182

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    ABSTRACT: A specimen-rich diatom population with various stages of the cell cycle of an undescribed species was found on a slide from the Krasske collection. At that time, it was erroneously identified as Navicula integra var. truncata. All life cycle stages have strictly lanceolate, but never truncate or elliptical, valve outlines. The specimens exhibited a complex of characters that conforms to Prestauroneis, but not to any known species, and it is thus here named Prestauroneis blazenciciae

    KEY WORDS:  saline springs, Prestauroneis, Navicula, Prestauroneis blazenciciae

The charophyte fossil record on the Iberian Peninsula: a synthesis
Martín-Closas, C., Vicente, A., Villalba-Breva, S. and Sanjuan, J.
Pages 183-194

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    ABSTRACT:  Iberia was first an island and then a European peninsula during most of the Earth’s history. This along with a long-lasting non-marine record has determined that fossil charophytes are wellrepresented and show significant particularities. As a matter of fact, the Iberian Peninsula is one of the best suited regions of Europe in which to study the charophyte fossil record from the Jurassic to the present. Middle and Late Jurassic charophyte assemblages are represented in the Lusitanian basin (Portugal). They show dominance of the family Porocharaceae in many of the environments available for charophytes. Lower Cretaceous charophytes, dominated by clavatoraceans, have been more studied in the Iberian Chain, where this family achieved high diversity. Also, many European charophyte biozones of this interval are based on Iberian clavatoraceans and have their stratotypes in the Iberian Chain. Upper Cretaceous charophytes of the Iberian Peninsula have been more studied in the Campanian of the Southwestern Iberian Chain (Serranía de Cuenca) and in the Maastrichtian of the south-Pyrenean basins (Catalonia). The floras show important affinity with those from southern France, which is not surprising since both regions were part of the so-called Ibero-Armorican Island. The Upper Cretaceous charophyte record from the southern Pyrenees is significant because it contains a reference section enabling us to define the Cretaceous-Palaeogene boundary based on charophytes in the Àger basin. Palaeogene charophytes from Iberia are best known from studies devoted to the Ebro foreland basin, where a detailed biozonation of the Eocene and Oligocene has been proposed. The charophyte assemblages were composed of a mixture of fossil and present-day genera and included both typical European species as well as endemic taxa. Neogene charophytes from Iberia are poorly known, but a number of studies have been performed, mainly in Central Spain and in the Ebro basin.

    KEY WORDS:  Charophyta, Spain, Portugal, Mesozoic, Cenozoic

Chara vulgaris L. (Charales) in springs on Amorgos island (Greece)
Langangen, A.
Pages 195-203

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    ABSTRACT:  A total of 19 springs were visited in 2012, 2013 and 2015. The springs are of different kinds, open or closed. Chara vulgaris was found in nine open springs, all situated on bedrock of flysch. Six of the springs contained C. vulgaris f. longibracteata, a form which is also found on several surrounding islands. Some of these springs also have a similar fauna of aquatic animals. This suggests that the islands are remains of a larger Aegean mainland, which de facto existed. It is difficult to explain how the charophytes have been dispersed to different springs on Amorgos. Charophytes are most commonly dispersed by water birds, which may have been the case on Amorgos. Another possibility is dispersal by human activities in and around the springs. The springs are small beauty spots in the landscape, and it is hoped that they will be cared for in the future.

    KEY WORDS:  Greece, Amorgos, springs, Chara vulgaris f. longibracteata

The charophyte flora in a Ramsar Mediterranean wetland (Albufera de València Natural Park, Spain) during the period 2007-2010
Rodrigo, M.A and Alonso-Guillén, J.L.
Pages 205-215

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    ABSTRACT:  The Albufera de València Natural Park (AVNP) is an internationally recognised coastal region. With an area of 21000 ha, it is composed of a large lagoon surrounded by marshlands devoted to rice crops, a web of irrigation channels connecting the rice fields to the lagoon, small freshwater-tobrackish ponds patchily scattered throughout an area of sand dunes separating the lagoon from the sea, a set of springs and newly created artificial wetlands. In the ‘60s and ‘70s, the area was seriously affected by urbanisation, development of agriculture, industry, etc., and many of the indicated water bodies were destroyed. At present, managers have restored some of these aquatic ecosystems. Between 2007 and 2010 we visited 32 sites (six rice fields, 10 ponds, eight springs, four channels and four sites in two artificial wetlands) and studied the richness of charophyte species. In addition to macroalgae, we sampled sediments as well (searching for charophyte oospores and gyrogonites). Fifteen charophyte taxa were identified (Chara aspera, Ch. braunii, Ch. canescens, Ch. globularis, Ch. hispida var. baltica, Ch. hispida var. hispida, Ch. imperfecta, Ch.vulgaris var. contraria, Ch. vulgaris var. inconnexa, Ch. vulgaris var. longibracteata, Ch. vulgaris var. vulgaris, Lamprothamnium papulosum, Nitella hyalina, Tolypella glomerata and T. prolifera), 14 of them as growing specimens. Chara vulgaris was the most abundant taxon. Rice fields were one of the systems with the highest charophyte richness. Approximately 30% of the Iberian charophyte flora (46 taxa) and 58% of that in the province of Valencia (26 taxa) are represented within the AVNP. Eleven taxa of the genus Chara are present on the Iberian Peninsula, and seven of them were found within the limits of the AVNP. A comparison with charophyte richness in other West Mediterranean wetlands is also provided.

    KEY WORDS:  Albufera de València Natural Park, Characeae, species richness, anthropogenic disturbances, rice fields, springs, interdunal ponds

Species of Nitella (Charophyceae, Charales) from Israel: low species richness and rare occurrence
Romanov, R.E. and Barinova, S.S.
Pages 217-227

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    ABSTRACT:  All available specimens, published records and results of the authors’ own field studies have been consulted to update information about the distribution and ecology of Nitella species in Israel. Study of specimens from TELA and new collections confirmed the presence of N. mucronata and revealed N. hyalina and N. opaca, new species for the region studied. The previous record of N. oligospira in Israel is quite doubtful in light of its distribution range. The ecology of N. hyalina and N. mucronata in Israel is described. There is no difference between species composition of Nitella in Israel and both temperate and subtropical zones of Eurasia, the former being a strongly impoverished variant of the latter two. According to the available data, low species richness and rare occurrence seem to be common features of all current data sets for Nitella from all other states of Western and Central Asia.

    KEY WORDS:  charophytes, Characeae, Nitella, species richness, ecology, species protection, Eastern Mediterranean

New finds of Chara oedophylla Feldmann in Tunisia: signifcance of sejoined gametangia
Soulié-Märsche, I. and Muller, S.D.
Pages 229-236

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    ABSTRACT:  Chara oedophylla was established as a new species after examination of specimens collected by L. Gauthier in Tunisia in 1926, which were kept at the herbarium of Paris. Subsequently, several scientists considered it to be a variety of Chara vulgaris. During fieldwork in northern Tunisia, we found the species close to its type locality (Mogods region). Detailed examination of abundant populations of these plants revealed their particular, specific morphology. Chara oedophylla is characterised by a sejoined arrangement of the gametangia (on different nodes), whereas they are conjoined in C. vulgaris. The antheridia are very large, as is usually the case in dioecious species. In contrast to C. vulgaris, where geminate oogonia are side by side, they are vertically geminated in C. oedophylla. The female nodes bear numerous swollen bract cells, hence the etymology of the species name.
    Here we provide an emended diagnosis that highlights the differences compared to C. vulgaris in order to maintain C. oedophylla as a valid species. The significance of sejoined gametangia with respect to speciation is discussed.

    KEY WORDS:  Characeae, temporary habitat, North Africa, monoecism, dioecism

Contribution to knowledge of the charophytes (Charales) of Vojvodina (Serbia) – 20 years afer the frst review
Vesic, A., Blažencic, J. and Šinžar-Sekulic, J.
Pages 237-247

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    ABSTRACT:  This paper summarises known data regarding floristic richness, distribution and habitat preferences of the charophyte algae (Charales) in the region of Vojvodina (Serbia). The historical records were collected from all available literature and herbarium data on charophytes in Vojvodina from the beginning of charophyte research in the 19th century to the present day. Moreover, detailed field investigations were carried out in the period from 2012 to 2014. The last study summarising knowledge about the distribution and ecology of charophytes (Charales) in Vojvodina was done in 1995, and nine species were listed therein. At the present time, 20 years later, 11 more species are known. Altogether, charophytes are represented in the flora of Vojvodina with 20 species, belonging to four genera: Chara, Nitellopsis, Nitella and Tolypella. All data were georeferenced and species distribution maps are given. Concerning habitat preferences, charophytes of Vojvodina are mainly found in three types of habitats, namely puddles and ruts in river floodplains, different kinds of excavation pits and periodically dredged canals. Most of the known localities are in the protected areas of Vojvodina.

    KEY WORDS:  charophytes, richness, distribution, habitat

Diversity of macromycetes in the Botanical Garden “Jevremovac” in Belgrade
Vukojevic, J., Hadžic, I., Kneževic, A., Stajic, M., Milovanovic, I. and Cilerdžic, J.
Pages 249-259

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    ABSTRACT:  At locations in the outdoor area and in the greenhouse of the Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, a total of 124 macromycetes species were noted, among which 22 species were recorded for the first time in Serbia. Most of the species belong to the phylum Basidiomycota (113) and only 11 to the phylum Ascomycota. Saprobes are dominant with 81.5%, 45.2% being lignicolous and 36.3% are terricolous. Parasitic species are represented with 13.7% and mycorrhizal species with 4.8%. Inedible species are dominant (70 species), 34 species are edible, five are conditionally edible, eight are poisonous and one is hallucinogenic (Psilocybe cubensis). A significant number of representatives belong to the category of medicinal species. These species have been used for thousands of years in traditional medicine of Far Eastern nations. Current studies confirm and explain knowledge gained by experience and reveal new species which produce biologically active compounds with anti-microbial, antioxidative, genoprotective and anticancer properties. Among species collected in the Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, those medically significant are: Armillaria mellea, Auricularia auricula.-judae, Laetiporus sulphureus, Pleurotus ostreatus, Schizophyllum commune, Trametes versicolor, Ganoderma applanatum, Flammulina velutipes and Inonotus hispidus. Some of the found species, such as T. versicolor and P. ostreatus, also have the ability to degrade highly toxic phenolic compounds and can be used in ecologically and economically justifiable soil remediation.

    KEY WORDS:  Botanical Garden “Jevremovac”, diversity, macromycetes

First record of the rust fungus Endophyllum sempervivi (Alb. & Schwein.) de Bary (Pucciniomycetes) in Serbia
Ljaljevic Grbic, M., Lakušic, D., Stupar, M. and Vukojevic, J. 
Pages 261-264

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    ABSTRACT:  Endophyllum sempervivi, known to cause rust on Sempervivum and Jovibarba species, is here documented for the first time in Serbia, on Jovibarba heuffelii growing at two localities (in the gorge of Studenica River and on Mt. Treska). Aside from Serbia, an additional report of infected J. heuffelii plants is made for Romania (on Mt. Domogled). The pathogen’s distribution presumably is wider than initially believed and requires further surveys.

    KEY WORDS:  houseleek, pathogen, rust basidiomycete, Serbia

Bookreviews
Ninkovic,S.
Stevanovic, V. 

Pages 265-268

Abstract | Full text PDF

    ABSTRACT: 
    Ninkovic Slavica
    Radojevic, Lj. 2016. Biotechnology in Horticulture. Trees I. – Belgrade: AGM knjiga, Institute for Biological Research “Siniša Stankovic”. 259 pp.; hardcover. ISBN 978-86-86363-65-7 (AGMK). [Radojevic, Lj. 2016. Biotehnologija u hortikulturi: Drvece 1. – Beograd: AGM knjiga, Institut za biološka istraživanja “Siniša Stankovic”. 259 str.] (In Serbian)

    Stevanovic Vladimir
    Strid A. 2016. Atlas of the Aegean Flora. Part 1: Text & Plates, 700 pp. Part 2: Maps, 878 pp. – Englera 33 (part 1 & 2). Berlin: Botanic Garden and Botanical Museum Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin. Hardcover. ISBN 978-3- 921800-97-3 (part 1); 978-3-921800-98-0 (part 2). Price: EUR 120 (both parts together) (In English)

    KEY WORDS: 

RETRACTION:
Sakr, N. 2015. Intra- and inter-isolate variation in two predominant Plasmopara halstedii (sunflower downy mildew) races in Europe. Botanica Serbica 39(1): 1-8.
is retracted according to the auto/plagiarism report and repetition of the data already published in similar, previously published papers, without proper referencing.
Pages 269